Balto-slavic is a convenient linguistic generalization of the complex multi-regional poly-ethnic Middle Dnieper cultural horizon, and gener" The IE Satem polyethnic Middle Dnieper Culture appeared well over five thousand years ago in forested re-gions by the Middle & Upper Dnieper river and it's tributaries - also including a wide area extending East towards the Don,along with an early Northeastern variant which developed of related East Baltic speaking forest-zone Fatyanovo Balanovo cultures that spread North and East,up to the Ural Mountains, together are seen as Northern extensions (3300-1800 BCE) of the Corded Ware culture horizon (re: mtDNA N1a1). There were altogether really quite a few Baltic Satem speaking cultures - the  early West Baltic (Pamariai/Bay Coast) Barrow culture in the West - the Middle Dnieper in the middle - and the geographically immense East Baltic speaking Fatyanovo-Balanovo cultures, settled among (and eventually merging with, among others) neighboring Finno-Ugrics on territory in the North & East - up to the Ural mountains and Kama-Volga rivers. "

[Balanovo-Volosovo-kulttuuri Kama-joen on mitä ilmei-simmin ollut suomalaista ja Fatjanovo(-Balanovo)-kulttuuri Oka-joella itäbalttilaista. Volosovo oli kalastuskult-tuuri/heimo. Tämä Akaan vesilhdelta löydetty koru on kama-joen suomalaisheimojen tuotantoa:

Laukon kartanon edustalla sijaitsevalta Pohdonsaarelta on tehty merkittävä muinaislöytö.

Laukon kartanon edustalla sijaitsevalta Pohdonsaarelta on tehty merkittävä muinaislöytö.

Laukon kartanosta on löytynyt 1 200 vuotta vanha kolmipäinen kotkakoru.

Koru on alustavissa tutkimuksissa ajoitettu aina merovingiajalle (550-800). Permi-läistä muotoperinnettä edustava mahtiriipus on ilmeisesti tuotu muinaiseen Laukkoon kaukaa Venäjältä, Volgan mutkan pohjoispuolelta.

– Koru on painavaa pronssia ja se on todella hyvin säilynyt. Koru on lähdössä Laukosta konservointiin aivan näinä päivinä, kertoi Liisa Lagerstam Laukon kartanosta keskiviikkona.

– Näin korun heti, kun se oli löydetty Pohdonsaaresta. Se on upein koskaan näkemäni muinaiskoru.

Kolmipäisen kotkakorun löytöpaikka on Pohdonsaari, jossa käytiin historian hämä-rissä legendaarinen kaksintaistelu pirkkalaispäällikkö Matti Kurjen ja venäläis-päällikkö Pohdon välillä. Uudet esihistorialliset korulöydöt kertovat, että saarella on sijainnut paikallisten mahtisukujen uhripaikka jo vuosisatoja ennen Matti Kurjen päiviä.]

"Balto-Slavic is a conic at best.Regional semi-autonomous variant subgroups (forest vs. steppe) within the geography of the poly-ethnic Middle Dnieper culture area explains most irreducible incongruities between Baltic and Slavic. Exca-vations between the rivers Orell and Samara have uncovered burials of a syn-cretic nature that attest contacts between the spheres of the Corded Ware and Yamna cultures. It may indicate early and prolonged contacts between polyethnic Proto-Indo-Iranians and the ancestors of the East Balts, which had evolved as somewhat related neighboring "Satem" cultures. "

" The high incidence of Y chromosomes from the haplogroup N1c suggest long term relations and admixture with Finnic neighbors, which may have had a con-servative influence on the East Baltic dialects and speakers. The divergence of language is usually happening while there is also a convergence of languages. The contemporary East Balt-Finnic mixed population reflects the ancient INDO-URALIC Proto-language nicely. "

" A separation of Belarus subpopulations along a North/South line can be demon-strated particularly in distribution of Y chromosomal lineages R1b, I1a and I1b, N3 and G chromosomes.The uniqueness of the northern Belarusian population is most likely due to the high incidence of Яцьвягі (jotvinki) Y chromosomes from the haplo-group N1c [old name N3] (homogeneous Baltic Яцьвягі substrate with allele DYS 19*15),which is twice the frequency as in central and southern Belarus. The central and southern Belarusian substratum Baltic Milograd physical traits differ somewhat from Ukrainian substratum Slav/Scytho-Sarmatian traits (re:U3). The assimilation of Belarus may have been mainly linguistic and less physically ethnical. "

Saamen suorista baltti- ja iranilainoista:

" The Eastern most dialects of the Early East-Baltic area (Fatyanovo-Balanovo) did not survive intact to be documented beyond numerous hydronyms and many archaic loanwords in various Finnic languages (gyenta/gyentar) and Indic (dhēnā, śapha-ras, rathas), as well as contributing later to Russian dialects (re: Terje Mathiassen & "Sprachbund" notion).There are loanwords in Saami from Volga-East-Baltic that show no indications of Finnic sound changes (IE,Saami "luossa" < Volga-Baltic "la- šiša" vs. Finnish "lohi",salmon),which help to approxi-mately date a common source language for Finnic and Saami - and trade with Volga-Balts. The loanwords were decidedly not prestigious items of an arrogant elite, ie Saami "duovli", Latvian "dagla" tinder, or for example, North Saami "suoidni" hay, Finnish "heinä" id, Lith. "šienas" id.

From reconstructions of the many cultural loanwords in Finno-Uralic by linguists, & those found in Vedic, one might gather that the languages of the Fatyanovo-Balanovo Volga-Balts resembled a very archaic (circa 2800 BCE) East Baltic Samo-Lettic (their Solar cult & Sun songs), surviving and evolving for the most part into Modern East-Baltic Lithuanian, Samogitian and Latvian, and being cultu-rally preserved in their dainos/dainās, especially those with a solar theme. Many East Baltic Fatyanovo-Balanovo artifacts exhibit designs reflecting such solar themes.

Some regard the central Latvian (Lithuanian, HM) system of three intonations (also in Samogitian-Žemaitian) as an archaism of the Baltic group, while others (Stang 1966; 142) view the 3 tones as a reflection of accent retraction due to con-tact with another language (a new broken tone from where stress was retracted to a syllable which originally had acute tone). These are part of the "D" Balts of the late great Balticist V.Mažiulis.Given the earlier political assassination of Lithuanian linguist Jonas Kazlauskas by the KGB (Déjà Vu - again? - re:Mari's Prof Yuri Anduganov), it perhaps was a safer label than a more accurate "Ural Balts" or more inflammatory, yet factual "Volga-Kama Balts".The settlement of Balts in Russia three thousand years before the arrival of Slavs was not politically expe-dient information, nor particularly welcome. Note loanwords into Finno-Ugric below (Gordeev 1967, Redei 1986) - of a specifically archaic East Baltic lexical "Fatyanovo" prove-nance, ie žalga, dagla, gentar, kela, ratas, tilta, kār'as, deivas , not some hypo-thetical "Proto- Balto-Slavic" of academics to conveniently mask collective miscalculations. Close, but no cigar, dudes! "

[HM: Mitenkähän suomessa näkyy *gentar = meripihka ="tislatun katainen", liettu-an gintaras, latvian/kurin dzintars (kreikan elektron)? Samaa juurta on sana hauta latviasta, ja muusta partsiipista kuurista (savustus) savu ja sauna. Suomen taivas ei tule "jumalasta" deivas, vaan se on *daigwas = ylle kaareutuva.]

" In regard to variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group,the frequency of the uncommon LWb gene in regions of West vs. East Balts provides solid scientific proof of an ancient genetic distinction between spea-kers of the two groups. Theories of a "Proto-Balto-Slavic" split around 1000 BCE (eg. Kortlandt 1982) naively contradict the immense volume of linguistic, archaelo-gical and emerging genetic evidence. Latvia has eleven C-14 dates of Corded Ware Culture, with the oldest around 3360 cal. BCE (95.4% probability). Time-travel technology has yet to be unearthed from the Latvian "boat-axe" archaeolo-gical sites. Such C-14 calibrated dating evidence only adds additional prestige to the archaic Slavic language branches.

Another key feature of West Baltic languages is the asigmatic nominative sin-gular neuter gender ending in [-n]. This is noted in such words as kelan (wheel), azeran (lake), and dadan (milk). There are also many neuter gender words that end in [-u], such as panu (fire) and peku (livestock), as well as alu (mead). The neuter gender exemplifies the archaic nature of the West vs. East divide in Baltic. Lithuanian still has the neuter gender in some adjectives ending in -a, -ia,or -u, as well as in Neuter Participles. For example, "Šalta" - It is cold, or "Čia jo būta" - He was here. [re: neuter "vaška" beeswax > Finnish "vaha"].The Lithuanian neuter is often used in impersonal constructions.There is not the slightest trace of the West Baltic neuter asigmatic "n" in East Baltic Fatyanovo loanwords or modern East Baltic (Prussian "median" vs Samogitian "medė" forest ), once again dating the West vs. East Baltic language relationship to a pre-Fatyanovo era. [re: >Finnish "metsä"- forest, Esto-nian "mets",Votic "meccä", Karelian "mečču" id, Lule Saami "miehttjēn" far away, Saami "meahcci" forest,fringe, Hungarian (!) "messze" far, distant/East Baltic "tilta" bridge - Fatyanovo neuter! > Finnish "silta" bridge, Estonian "sild", Volgaic Erzya "śid́-al", "se͔d́"  id  < ? Skt. "sētu-" dam, dike ] "

" Fatyanovo cemetaries would sometimes have graves of not only people,but also bear (irštva) and other animals which are buried with ritual close by in individual graves. Solar designs (Solar cult/clan, re: Saulės Rẽtis) commonly adorn Baltic Fatyanovo ceramics.Livestock includes cattle:horses,sheep, pigs and dogs (North Saami "šūvon") and apiculture.Excavations indicate hunting and fishing was often practiced.Two-wheeled wagons (Goldina 1999) are also typical finds (re:ratas), as are toy wheels. There are a profusion of sites around the Kazan, Russia (Volga-Kama) region. The more metallurgically exploited region of the Fatyanovo culture was designated as the Balanovo culture (2900-2100 BCE), from a cemetery found near the town. Balanovo cemeteries had both kurgan and flat type burials (*like Abaševo - Kuz'mina 2007). The funeral chambers were wooden constructions in rectangular pits, with the deceased wrapped in birch bark or hides. Balanovo cop-per metallurgy has it's roots in central European cultural traditions which were ethnic contributors in the multi-ethnic "vortex" of the Middle Dnieper Cultural area.

Balanovo jewelry duplicates specific designs of a Central European provenance. East Baltic lexicon also has unique isoglosses with Central European Celto-Italic dialects, which also shared the BBC&TRB substrate found in the Globular Ampho-ra horizon (semti > kb., ratas).Emulating the earlier poly-ethnic Globular Amphora culture, Fatyanovo-Balanovo pioneers adorned their ceramics with solar designs, valued pork (parša) high among livestock, and practiced copper metallurgy.  By 2,600 BCE, the Fatyanovo / Balanovo culture and it's copper metallurgy was firmly established in the Volga-Kama Ural region.

The villages were composed of above ground wooden houses built from logs, with saddled roofs,and had fenced enclosures (Udmurt "kar"- town site,Komi "kar"- site of ancient town, Mordvin "kardaz"- enclosure, courtyard < Volga East-Baltic "gar-das"- enclosure). East Baltic Balanovo and Finno-Uralic Volosovo peoples appa-rently mixed well without much conflict,as they did with steppe peoples with whom they they had contact via trade with the Caucacus metalworkers. Chuvaš "jandar" and Hungarian "gyentar"- amber, "gyenta" - resin, reflect an archaic adjectival "-tar" neuter suffixed East Baltic "gentaras"< "*gentar"- amber < "*genta" - resin, gum [< nasal PIE *gʷet,väärin:ei mene näin päin,vaan *gʷen-*gē- (g´en-, *gei-, *gai-)] - resin (re:Skt jatu - resin,aśvatara- mule). East Baltic Balanovo metallurgy would provide significant impetus to Seyma-Turbino metallurgy. Komi "ram" -  calm, and "erd" - field,reflect peaceful interaction with the Volga-Balts. Note Komi "rit" - evening, and Lettic "riets"- sunset. The "pirtis" - log shed (sauna), of the pioneering Volga-Balts was evidently noticed and emulated by the locals (Mari "pört", Saami "barta"). Finnish "Orja", - slave,Estonian [gen.] "Orja",Udmurt "Var", Komi "Ver", Mokša "Uŕä",Erzya "Uŕe"- slave,indicates some later conflicts with the Āryans - as do some archaeological sites (note - all the various late Finnic "Āryan" terms lack archaic nominative "s" - like later Timber-Grave Iranian). In contrast, Saami "Oar'je", designates a direction.

Variations among Saami mtDNA now show an earlier link to the Volga-Ural region.

Overlapping the Southern edge of the Fatyanovo - Balanovo region, by where the rivers flow South, another group of the Baltic-type Satem Corded Ware pottery tradition later developed that is called the Abaševo culture (2400 - 1800 BCE), after a nearby village East of Kazan,Russia. The Abaševo culture exhibited strong influences from both Pit-grave and Catacomb cultures on it's Baltic-type Corded Ware traditions. Abaševo metallurgy was proportionally less weapon-oriented than that of their Pit-grave Āryan neighbors, exhibiting more utilitarian or artistic orna-mental products.That being said,Abaševo weapon metallurgy was innovative, and the designs were adopted by Andronovo cultures.Unlike the xenophobic Pit-grave Āryans of the bordering steppe, the forest dwelling Abaševo, like the Balanovo, mixed well with the local Volosovo hunters & foragers, influencing their culture in many ways.

The Abaševo relations with Seima-Turbino were also apparently fruitful for each other. (East Baltic Fatyanovo  kela, Finnish kela - reel, spindle, Fatyanovo & Lith. ratas, Finnish & Estonian ratas - wheel, North Saami ráhtis - id, Fatyanovo & Lith kepti,Saami giksa-, kopša- to cook).The archaic East Baltic kela vs. ratas usage invites scholarly investigation.Finnish "taivas" reflects an archaic East Baltic influ-ence still heard in "Saule noiet dievā" of the old Latvian Dainās (re: H. Biezais, 961). "

" The cultural convergence of these various Āryan, Baltic and Uralic peoples by the Urals in the second millennium BCE is reflected in name of the annual Finnish "Kek-ri" celebration, which exemplfies the state of developement of the Indo-Ira-nian at that time - as compared with later Rig Vedic Sanskrit sg./pl. "čakras / čakrā-", PIE *kʷekʷlos. (Finnish "yhdeksän" 9, "or 1 from 10" < IIr - vs. Finnish "tuhante" 1000< E.Baltic Fatyanovo).It is apparent from above that at mid-second millennium B.C.E.,the Fatyanovo East Baltic Satem [š] preceded a slower develo- ping Indo-Āryan [ś]. Did one perhaps influence the other? (Mari "indeś" 9, Ossetic "dæs" 10). East Baltic Fatyanovo "žemė" lowland, was adopted as a toponym "šäme", and is now known as the "häme" region of Finland. Before the Finnic change of "š" to "h", the toponym provided an ethnonym - "Saami" aka, the Lapplanders. (Koivulehto 1993).

It is all too common to read that the Finno-Ugric loan-words for "honey" - Hun-garian "mez", Mordvinic "med' ", Estonian/Finnish "mesi" were not borrowed from Baltic "medu"- honey,but rather from a later Āryan "madhu"- sweet drink! Even though the same Finno-Ugrics have loanwords - Mordvin "k'eras", Mari "karas", Udmurt "karas", for honeycomb/wax - reflecting East Baltic "kār'as" honeycomb (Lith. korys), and in spite of the archaeological chronology of centuries of Balt / Finno-Ugric in-teraction before Āryan culture arrival. It is noteworthy that current Baškir preserves "kärä-", along with Altaic Kazan Tatar "käräs" in that Ural region, and even distant Chuvaš has "karas" - honey-comb. The single markers of mtDNA N1a also group Baškirs with Lithuania and the Komi Permyaks. Surpri-singly, neither Slavic (w/ solitary exception of Polish skarzyk), nor Indo-Iranian possess a cognate.

Fatyanovo-Balanovo was not some "Balto-Slavic" - it was archaic East Baltic.

Another archaic Baltic loanword into Finno-Ugric exemplifying the range of influ-ence the Fatyanovo-Balanovo had is the East Baltic Lithuanian žalga "fishing pole" or "long pole, stick" (Arm. "jałk" rod), which has traces in Saami čuolggu "pole for pushing a fishing net under the ice", Finnish salko "long pole", Mordvin śalgo "stick", Komi źal "lath-stick", Hungarian(!) szál "spear, cane". "

"Sintašta intensifies the regional forest-zone copper metallurgy of the Corded Ware Abaševo and the earlier pioneering Balanovo East Balt metalworkers. Bala-novo copper (varis) metallurgy in the Urals had become an attractive alternative to the then destabilized Carpathian sources, drawing the attention of southerly (Saami "Oar'je") Volga Pit-grave Āryans who had endured cyclic periods of drought.

The Urals quickly became a major metallurgic center.Sintašta stock-breeding ref-lects the earlier Abaševo Corded Ware culture,as does some of it's metallurgic products, and flat graves.The Sintašta slightly concave knife-sickles are connec-ted to the Abaševo polyfunctional ones (Skt."kṛpā-",Latvian "cirpe",Lith. "kirpe-").

Many Sintašta remains were dolichocephalous europoids, like the forest-steppe Corded Ware Abaševans, and earlier Fatyanovans, while others re-semble Pit-grave /Poltavka types. In fact,kurgans only accounted for about one third of the burials at Sinatašta (Epimakhov 2002).E.Kuz'mina (The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, Volume 3,p.222) suggests Sintašta was not purely Āryan in compo- sition, and quite possibly bilingual. Over a period time, the cultures consolidated by the need for mutual co-operation.

The later stage of the polyethnic populace of Abaševo & Sintašta cultures may give an insight to the language of Proto-Indo-Iranian (Pre-Vedic/Avestan Sintaš-ta). Re-mains of the Pokrovskij type continue dolochocephaly and narrow faces, with addi-tional admixture of Uralic types detected in that group. The Arkaim / Sintašta area sites correspond to the Avestan Vara of the arriianəm vaējō.

Reflecting it's polyethnic populace is Finno-Ugric Hungarian var "fortress", Saami var "village" and East Baltic Lithuanian varas "tall timber palisade, stockade". Ar-kaim and Sintašta are also shaped like Central European "Rondels". The circular or oval settlement designs are very reminiscent of earlier Tripolye/Dnieper sites, or later East Baltic fortresses (eg.Tušemlya). The dolichocephalous, narrow faced Volga-Balts originated from the Northern Fatyanovo variants of the earlier Middle Dnieper culture,which had assimilated some Tripolye C2 substrata.Here is perhaps an example of a East Baltic term "varas" (timber stockade) borrowed in Finno-Ugric, Vedic, and Avestan. In stark contrast, the later Āryan Petrovka phase preferred a rectangular settlement shape over the circular or oval forts of the Urals, yet still exhibit influence from western Abaševo. Abaševan socketed spear designs eventually end up in western China via Andronovo influence. "

" That a central European culture (3,400 BCE - Baden/Globular Amphora) cen-tered new "wheel" term (Old Irish roth/ pl.rothai,Latin neuter sg. rota / pl. rotae, Albanian diminutive w/th from a *t > sg. rreth/pl. rrathë), reflected in Corded Ware East Baltic baritone masc. sg. ratas/pl. ratai, was loaned into Finnic languages is uncontested (re: Finnish ratas, North Saami ráhtis), but where does an Āryan baritone masc. sg. "ráthas" - vehicle figure in the pre-Sintašta (2100 BCE) Graeco-Armeno-Indo-Iranian shared lexicon? It doesn't. "

" Finnics (Finnish ratas, North Saami ráhtis) on the way to the copper deposits by the Urals. About 1,000 years later, Sintaštan Āryans - after spending a couple of centuries with the Corded Ware East Baltic speaking woodsmen, ride off into the dawn of history on their new Āryan dual-wheeled "rathas" (re: Kassite king "Abi- rattaš", Mitanni king " Tušratta" > circa 1350 BCE) - drawn by two horses using the Corded Ware Abaševo & Catacomb Multi-roller Ware inspired cheek-pieces.

Academics still dismiss the coincidence of a baritone masculine singular Āryan rathas / rattaš spontaneously" produced in the linguistic company of Ural East Balt metallurgists who had an isolated northern archaic *dialect form (*- circa 2400 BCE Baltic) of baritone masculine singular "*ratH2as >*rat'as >ratas" for near a thousand years since 3200 BCE. The Corded Ware East Baltic Fatyanovo-Bala-novo, Abaševo with their characteristic central European Globular Amphora cultu-ral influence (re: pottery, copper, pigs, flint axes, amber), are thus the most logical candidates for the dissemination of the "ratas" term of 2400 BCE, as heard to this day with East Baltic Lithuanian "ratas" & the related Latvian cognate.

HM: Arjan rathas on aivan yhtä lailla vasarakiverlaina kuin liettuan ja latvian ja suomen ratas (rattaat).

Arkaim & Sintašta artifacts - clearly exhibiting Abaševo - Fatyanovo cultural influ-ences (thus,verifiable contacts) - provide the archaeological support for just such a linguistic loanword exchange. As noted by Kramer, "the cat is out of the bag".

The Babino Multi-Roller Ware (MVK) Catacomb culture neighbors of the Abaševo would later be reflected in shaft graves with cheek-pieces in distant places as Myce-nae near Athens,by around 17th century BCE. Mycenaean warriors also wore baltic amber.

The combination of kurgan and flat graves,reflecting the integration of indigenous Europeans with I.E.steppe ethnicities (re: Dniester Usatovo-Tripolye), is found in the Middle Dnieper culture, Fatyanovo-Balanovo, and Corded Ware Abaševo.

Abaševo integration at Sintašta is indicated by various material artifacts. Sintašta kurgans account for about a third of the burials - the rest are, interestingly enough, flat graves.

Then there is the intriguing Perkaunijas,Pəŕgəńä,Parjanya legacy - the Sintaštan Ural elephant in the room, so to speak. Why are Parjanya cognates with a velar absent in the multitude of other surrounding Iranian-Dardic-Nuristani languages and dialects,or even closely related Slavic? (re: Pašto "Perūney", Slavic "Perun", Nuristani "Pärun")

[HM:Todennäköisesrti *Perun on vasarakirveskiltä ja tarkoittaa salamaniskua, sel- laisia aiheuttavaa olentoa.Sanalla EI ole suoraa tekemistä tammen, querqus, kanssa, ja JOS sellainen yhteys on,sekin tulee lyömisen ja lyömävälineiden kautta eikä "suoraan". Kantabaltin sanasta *kʷ´erkʷus voi tulla jossakin eteläisessä latvia-kielessä *perkus, samoin siitä voi tulla *kverkus]

The Prakrits of India also preserved related words (the tadbhava layer) not found in classical Sanskrit,such as Hindi "kukur-" and Lith."kukur-",both of mushroom compound words.Was the Sanskrit (ṛH) dialect "ir/ur" variation (Skt.śiras vs. Av. sarah-) an innovation,or perhaps a polyethnic relic of the first migration South.It is a rich field awaiting someone to harvest it.This approach to the polyethnic ethno- genesis of early Eurasian Pre-Vedic culture will, of course, upset some people. It's not really all that new. Such material was reviewed by W. Tomaschek in 1883 (Ausland), and discussed later by H. Arntz, S.G. Oliphant, and S.K Chatterji. "

"Theories about dating the earliest Proto-Slavic in relation to the distinct early Bal-tic branches need to examine the carbon dated chronology of East Baltic Fatyano- vo-Balanovo cultural remains (3200-1800 BCE), Baltic hydronyms in Russia such as the Oka river,the loss of the original Slavic Future tense, and Baltic loan-words (from assimilated East Balts) in Finno-Volgaic which help date the evidence.

Examples of archaic Baltic loanwords into Finno-Ugric are: East Baltic Lithuanian žalga "fishing pole" > North Saami čuolggu "pole",Finnish salko "long pole", Hun- garian(!) szál "spear,cane" or Lithuanian šaras "fodder" > Mokša Mordvinian śora "grain"<? Saka ṣara "seed". Another Finno-Ugric loanword from Fatyanovo-Bala-novo East Baltic "forest-border" is > Finnish "metsä" - forest, Estonian "mets", Karelian "mečču" id, Saami "meahcci" forest, fringe, Hungarian(!) "messze" far, distant/ vs. OCS  "mežda" - alley, lane. Words to the wise about any theoretical "Balto-Slavic" dates - "Caveat emptor", and compare it to all the facts we already know from empirical science. There are Latvia's eleven C-14 cal. dates of CWC with the oldest around 3360 cal. BCE. No time-travel technology has yet been found with those CWC artifacts to validate the possibility of other proposed dates of a "Proto-Balto-Slavic" by certain academics. "

" Suomen nuorakreaamisen eli vasarakirveskulttuurin kieli on ollut paitsi balt-tilainen, vieläpä hyvin selkeästi itäbalttilainen, mikä tarkoittaa, että se on jo synty-sijoillaan kokenut SU-kielten voimakasta äänteellistä ja muuta vaikutusta.

Sellainen "rekonstruoitu" "kieli", jota jaskat ovat pitäneet pyörityksissään "kantain-doeurooppana", on osoittautu- nut paljon myöhemmistä IE-kielimuodoista, mm. juuri vasarakirveskielestä kokoonpannuksi muuksi kyhäelmäksi.

Sen "juuria" koskeva sivu, jota mm. minä olen heti kriti-soinut juuri tuosta asiasta, että sen monet sanat ovat voineet olla balttia,mutta kaikkiea muuta kuin kantabalt- tia, saati "kantaindoeurooppaa", on määrätty poistetta- vaksi netistä. (Nuo kannat-taa kyllä kopioida levylle,vaikka ne ovatkin väärin. Niistä voi saada ainakin ideoita.

" Appendix: List of Proto-Indo-European roots   

The following is a list of Proto-Indo-European roots,given with their basic meaning and notable cognates in Indo-European languages.Note that there is some debate among scholars on whether certain roots belong to PIE or not.

Note that only roots are listed here; see Appendix: List of Proto-Indo-European nouns for nominal stems. See also w: Proto-Indo-European pronoun, w: Proto-Indo-European particle and Proto-Indo-European numerals.

    p, t, , k,
    b, d, ǵ, g,
    , , ǵʰ, , gʷʰ
    s, h₁/e, h₂/a, h₃/o, h₄, H (unknown laryngeal)
    y, w, r, l, m, n

WIkin tiedote:

This appendix has been nominated for deletion(+)

Please see that page for discussion and justifi-cations. Feel free to edit this appendix as normal, though do not remove the {{rfd}} until the debate has finished.

Wikipedia has an article on:

Proto-Indo-European root

" The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning,so-called morphemes.PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "eat" or "run". Roots never occur alone in the language. Complete inflected words like verbs,nouns or adjectives are formed by adding fur-ther morphemes to a root. Typically, a root plus a suffix forms a stem, and adding an ending forms a word. [1] Suffix and ending together are sometimes called the desinence (German: Ausgang), especially when they are fused.

For example, *bʰéreti [2] "he carries" can be split into the root *bʰer- "to carry", the suffix *-e- "present tense" and the ending *-ti "third person singular". [3]

In its base form, a PIE root consists of a single vowel, preceded and followed by consonants.Except for a very few cases,the root is fully characterized by its con-sonants, while the vowel may alternate, a process called ablaut. Thus, the men-tioned root *bʰer- can also appear as *bʰor-,with a long vowel as *bʰēr- or *bʰōr-, or even unsyllabic as *bʰr-, in different grammatical contexts.

Phonotactics describes the restrictions on the permissible combinations of phonemes (sounds).

Basic root structure

The centre of a PIE root is the ablauting vowel (usually *e, perhaps sometimes *a in its base form,the full grade).This vowel constitutes a sonority peak that is prece- ded and followed by a sequence of consonants with progressively decreasing so-nority values. In other words, the sonority has to fall toward both edges of the root. The sonority hierarchy is as follows: [5]

non-labial sonorants *l *r *y *n
labial sonorants *w *m
plosives (sounds like *p *t *ḱ *k *kʷ or *bʰ; see Proto-Indo-European phonology for a complete table of PIE plosives)

This gives the following root structure (with P being any plosive and \oslash an empty position):

*w after a vowel is often written *u, and *y after a vowel is often written *i. Thus, *leiǵ- = *leyǵ- "to bind" and *dʰeu- = *dʰew- "to run" are allowed roots.

Other possible roots include *ped- "to tread", *dʰwes- "to breathe" and *wleikʷ- "to moisten". Forbidden are structures like **mter- (wrong order of phonemes: internal plosive) and **wmek- (two phonemes of the same group: unchanging sonority).

Additional phonemes

The remaining sounds, namely the laryngeals *h₁ *h₂ *h₃ and the sibilant *s, can occupy almost any place in the hierarchy. [5] *s is particularly common in initial position (see s-mobile). [6] Examples of such roots are *peth₂- "to fly", *treh₁w- "to nourish" and *streig- "to stroke".

Following the terminology of Sanskrit grammar, roots ending in laryngeals are referred to as seṭ-, all others as aniṭ-roots.

Restrictions on the plosives

A root cannot contain two plain voiced plosives (**ged-), nor can it contain a voiced aspirate and a voiceless plosive (**tebʰ-), unless the latter occurs in a word-initial cluster after an *s (e.g. *stebʰ- "to stiffen"). [6]

Restrictions on the number of phonemes

The vowel has to be preceded and followed by at least one consonant each. The maximum number of conso- nants seems to be five (as in *strengʰ- "to twine"). [6]

Early PIE scholars reconstructed a number of roots beginning or ending with a vo-wel. [7] The latter type always had a long vowel (*dʰē- "to put", *bʰwā- "to grow", *dō- "to give"),while this restriction did not hold for vowel-initial roots (*ed- "to eat", *aǵ- "to drive", *od- "to smell"). Laryngeal theory can explain this behaviour by re-constructing a laryngeal following the vowel (*dʰeh₁-, *bʰweh₂-, *deh₃-, resulting in a long vowel) or preceding it (*h₁ed-,*h₂eǵ-, *h₃ed-, resulting in a short vowel). These reconstructions obey the mentioned rules. [8]

Roots without a full grade

Some roots have no central *e, an example being *bʰuH- "to grow, to become". Such roots can be seen as generalized zero grades of forms like **bʰweH-, [9] and thus follow the phonotactical rules. [10]


Some roots like *pster- "to sneeze" or *pteh₂k- "to duck" do not appear to follow these rules. This might be due to incomplete understanding of PIE phonotactics or to wrong reconstruc- tions. *pster-, for example, might not have existed in PIE at all, if the Indo-European words usually traced back to it are onomatopoeias. [11]

Thorn clusters are sequences of a dental (*t *d *dʰ) plus a velar plosive (*k *g *gʰ etc.). [12] Their role in PIE pho- notactics is unknown. Roots like *dʰgʷʰei- "to perish" apparently violate the phonotactical rules, but are quite common.

Lexical meaning

The meaning of a reconstructed root is conventionally that of a verb;the terms root and verbal root are almost synonymous in PIE grammar. This is because, apart from a limited number of so-called root nouns, PIE roots overwhelmingly partici-pate in verbal inflection through well-established morphological and phonological mechanisms. Their meanings are not always directly reconstructible, due to se-mantic shifts that led to discrepancies in the meanings of reflexes in the attested daughter languages. Many nouns and adjectives are derived from verbal roots via suffixes and ablaut.

Nevertheless,some roots did exist that did not have a primary verbal derivation. Apart from the aforementioned root nouns, the most important of these were the so-called Caland roots,which had adjectival meaning. Such roots generally formed proterokinetic adjectives with the suffix *-u-,thematic adjectives in *-ró- and com-pounding stems in *-i-.They included at least *h₁rewdʰ- "red",*h₂erǵ- "white", *dʰewb- "deep" and *gʷreh₂- "heavy". [13]

Word formation

Fully inflected words are usually formed from a root plus a suffix plus an ending. The suffix is sometimes missing, which has been interpreted as a zero suffix. [14] Words with zero suffix are termed root verbs and root nouns. Beyond this basic structure, there is the nasal infix, a present tense marker, and reduplication, a sort of prefix with a number of grammatical and derivational functions. [15]

Finite verbs

Verbal suffixes,including the zero suffix, convey grammatical information about tense and aspect, two grammatical categories that are not clearly distinguished. Present and aorist are universally recognised,while some of the other aspects re-main controversial. Two of the four moods, the subjunctive and the optative, are also formed with suffixes, which sometimes results in forms with two consecutive suffixes: *bʰére-ti > *bʰérēti "he would carry", with the first *e being the present tense marker, and the second the subjunctive marker. [16] Reduplication can mark the present and the perfect. [15]

Verbal endings convey information about grammatical person, number and voice. The imperative mood has its own set of endings. [17]

Nouns and adjectives

Nouns are usually derived from roots or verb stems by suffixation or other means (see the morphology of the Proto-Indo-European noun for some examples). This can hold even for roots that are often translated as nouns: *ped-, for example, can mean "to tread" or "foot", depending on the ablaut grade and ending.Some nouns like *agʷn-o- "lamb" or *h₂ster- "star", however, are not derived from verbal roots. [18] In any case,the meaning of a noun is given by its stem,whether this is com-posed of a root plus a suffix or not.This leaves the ending,which conveys case and number. [19]

Adjectives are also derived by suffixation of (usually verbal) roots. An example is *ǵn̥h₁-tó-s "begotten, produced" from the root *ǵenh₁- "to beget, to produce". The endings are the same as with nouns. [20]

Infinitives and participles

Infinitives are verbal nouns and, just like other nouns, are formed with suffixes.It is not clear whether any of the infinitive suffixes reconstructed from the daughter lan-guages (*-dʰje-,*-tu-,*-ti-,among others) was actually used to express an infinitive in PIE. [21]

Participles are verbal adjectives formed with the suffixes *-ent- (active imperfec-tive and aorist participle), *-wos- (perfect participle) and *-mh₁no- or *-m(e)no- (mediopassive participle), among others. [22]

Tämä on justiin sitä, mitä mm. minäkin ole selittänyt.

Nuo juuret muuten eivät ole aina perusmuodon juuria, esimerkiksi *ed- = syödä on preesensjuuri.


Indoeurropalaisen sotavaunukansan lähtöpaikka 2000 vuoden takaa on paikallistettu.

Nimi Arkaim voi olla lähellä germaania "Arka-(him)" = "Taivasmaa", "-kylä", arka = engl. arc ja arch, lat. arcus = kaari, alunp. turkkilainen sana "jousenkaari, selkä-ranka" ja (h)im = hem, zheme, kaimas (vasarak.,liett.), kaima, heimo, seita, Saimaa, Häme, šeimas, zemlja, zemja...

Nimi voi olla myös vasarakiveskielestä Arkaimis, liett. Aro Kaimas, Ario Kaimas = Kyntökylä, "Arjakylä", mutta tämä ei ole todennäköistä. Kieli on voinut olla myös keltin tyyppistä.

Nimi on voinut olla myös **Warkaim eli Sotakylä,jossa War on sama kuin englan-nin war ja äänttykin samoin,sekä suomen varus(kunta ym.),suoraan vasarakirves- tä tämän mukaan,espanjan ja ranskan guerre,la liettuan karas, kantaindoeroopan juuresta qwer-, qwar-.

Itäbalttilaisissa kielissä oisi alusta pudonnut k- ja länsibalttilaisiisa puolivokaali -w-.

(Nuo "kanta-IE-juuret" ovat väärin, sillä Sillä indoeuro-peistiikassa on tapahtunut tieteellinen kumous, mutta sanat kuukuvat yhteen etymologisesti.)

Niin tai näin, se on yhdyssana, jonka alukuosa viittaa taivaaseen (kyntäminen on "il-mastamista", arti = kytää ja oras = ilma, liett. ovat samaa juurta, ja loppuosa viittaa (asuttuun) mahan.

Tämä on siis 2000 vuotta myöhäisempi ilmiö kuin kanta-indoeuroopan tai kanta-uralin kieli, ja 100 vuotta myöhempi kuin itäbalttilaisen vasarakirveskansan tulo Suomeen. Temppelissä on piirteitä, jotka muistuttavat Stonehengea. Vaikutus on siinä tapauksessa kulkenut ensin lännestä itään ja sitten takaisin.

Euroopassa on puhuttu jo ennen sotavaunukieltä IE-kieliä, mm. Suomessa vasa-rakirveskieltä. Sotavaunukansa näyttäkin yhdistäneen entiset indoeuroopan puhu-jat, ja muodostaneen keski-Euroopassa lingua frankan,jota eri heimot ymmärsivät. Suo-meen sotavaunukansa ei tullut, eikä välttämättä Baltiaankaan, mutta sen sijaan kylläkin Tanskaan, saksaan Englantiin, Italiaan.

Tieteen palstalta:

panterarosa. Sumerilaiset ja uralilaiset olivat ennen jakaantumistaan siis samaa fnnougrilaista kansaa.

Tokkura: No eivät kyllä olleet, kun ei ollut ainoatakaan yhteistä haploryhmääkään!

p.: Jos N1c olisi kuulunut kompositioon, sitä olisi ollut Mesopotamiassakin, mutta sitä ei ole,

T.: N1c kuuluikin vain uralilaisten kompositioon. Ja loputkin olivat lähinnä muita N-ryhmiä.

On kuitenkin huomattava, että haploryhmä sellaisenaan ei vaikuta mihinkään mitään,vaan kyse on vanhoilta ajoilta ja hyvin suljetuista populaatioista perityvistä jonakin aikana vaihteilevan todennäköisistä yhteisperiytymisistä. Mitokondriaali-nen DNA määrää vielä vähemmän mitään, paitsi jos se on selvästi viallista, koksa se koodaa vain solun "energialaitoksen" toimintaa.Haplot eivät määrää muinaisten uralilaisten pieniä mustia silmiä tai edes neekerin ihonväriä.

p.: vaan mm. Iranista, mikä sijoittuu muinaisen Mesopotamian alueelle, löytyy kyllä muistona mareista R1a.

T.: Vaan ei ehkä ollenkaan löydy sumereista, mikä osoittaa luultavasti, etteivät he ole koskaan siihen menessä olleet kontakteissa (edes tuleviin)  kantaindoeurooppalaisiin.

p.: Marien alkuperäinen Y-dna on R1a ja onhan sitä kaikissa finnougrikansoissa vieläkin.

T.: Marien (Mari El) on N1c.

p.: Arjalaiset sotavaunuineen kehittyivät alkuaan Egyptin eli Kemin urilaisista pappushallitsijaluokan sumereista.

T.: Voisit lakata jauhamsasta tuollaista termiä, joka ensinnäkin tarkoittaa "orjalaista", ja jota kukaan muu ei enää käytä. Himmlerin aivopiereskelyä.

p.: Hyksot kirjoitettiin hieroglyfeissä hkxsvtt tai sinnepäin, en viitsi nyt tarkistaa, mutta se oli joka tapuksessa hakakasvut tai hakawasat.

T.: He olivat mustia israelilaisia, "rodultaan" jemeniläisiä.

" Hyksot olivat seemiläis-aasialaisia,jotka muuttivat Niilin suistoalueelle 18. vuosiluvulla eaa. Noin vuosina 1630–1523 eaa. hyksokuninkaat hallitsivat Egyptin pohjoisosia 15. dynastiana. [1] "

Samaa mutta paikoilleen jäänyttä jengiä olivat sittemmin mm. Salomon kanssa muhinoinut Saban kuningatar ja profeetta Muhammed.

p.: Hakkamenijästä muovautui hakkamanit ja haka tarkoitti vaunuja tai pyörää. Wasa puolestaan ajajaa.

T.: Ihan vapaasti. Molemmat olisivat baltti- tai iranilainoja: sm.  kela, pr.  kelan = pyörä, viron kõla = 1. *kek-lo = pyörä, chakra (kehrä)

*kʷel-  = "to turn wheel " => kääntää (ylös), nostaa, pyörittää, luoda (takoa ym.)

Ancient Greek πόλος (pólos), πέλομαι (pélomai), πέλω (pélō) Latin colō; Russian колесо́ (kolesó); Old English hwēol; English wheel; Old Irish cul, búachaill; Old Prussian kelan; Polish koło; Avestan (caraiti); Albanian sjell; Old Norse hjól, hvel; Lithuanian kẽlias; Luwian [script needed] (kaluti-); Welsh ymochel, dymchwel, bochel

Siirrän edellisestä poistetun "juuren" alle osan noista, jota eivät kuulu tuohon:

*kʷe*kʷ-l-, *kʷe*kʷ-r- = pyörä, kehä,

Ancient Greek κύκλος (kúklos) = ympypä, kehä, pyörä, (pyöreä) tori; Tocharian A kukäl = vaunut, kärryt = "pyörälliset", kiekolliset"; Tocharian B kokale = em.;  Sanskrit चक्र (cakrá); Old Persian [script needed] (čarka); Persian چرخ‏ (čarx); Ossetian цалх (calx); Avestan  (caxra), Lithuanian kãklas;


The proto-Indo-European word has been proposed as the source of Sumerian  (GIGIR, “chariot”), Semitic *galgal-, and Proto-Kartvelian *grgar. [1] The similarly shaped undetermined 軲轆 (*guk luk) [2] is only attested in the last few centuries and may be the result of convergent onomatopoeic derivation. Instead, the unde-termined (*kla, “chariot” > “car”) may be a borrowing from a descendant form of this root from the spread of the chariot. See Chariot (China). Lithuanian kẽlias, kãklas;

... ja vežti

Suomen sana ohja(s),viron ohi,venäjän vožža on samaa perua kuin jäkimmäinen. Sana on indoeurooppalainen,mutta vähäisintäkään syytä ei ole olettaa sen olevan germaaninen, vaikka ruotsin åka = ajaa, lienee samaa perua oleva vasarakirves-laina.

Kantaindoeurooppalaiseksi juureksi on rekonstruioitu
*weǵʰ- = ride = ratsastaa, ohjata
Eng. wegan/weigh, Lat. vehō, Oscan veia, Umbrian ar'veitu, Gk. ἔχω (ékhō)/, Skr. वहति (vahati), Av. vazaiti, Russ. везти́ (veztí), Polish wieźć, Alb. vjedh, Gm. biwegan / bewegen, ON vega, Goth. 𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (gawigan), Ir. fén/, Welsh gwain, Lith. vežti, Ltv. vest, Old Prussian vessis = reki, kelkka, Umbrian ařveitu, Gaul. Uecturius, Toch. wkäṁ/yakne, OCS vezǫ,
suomen viedä, viron vii(m)a = vaatia (ohjata ulkoa)

Tässä on kaksikin erittäin vahvaa kandidaattia indoeurooppalaisen kanstakielen lainoiksi uralilaisesta kantakielestä.

(jos sää lopettaisiit sen kanta-arjelais-persermaani-skitsoamise, voisit oppiakin jotakin!)

p.: Amenmosen eli Raamatun Mooseksen oikea hieroglyfititteli tarkasti luettuna oli ylläripylläri Haka-Wasa!

T.: Jos noin olisi, se olisi indoeurooppalainen sotavaunulaina. Mutta väki oli eri.

p.: Hyksot, joiden esi-isät olivat Kemin hallitsijaluokkaa,

T.: Jälkeläiset olivat sitä, aikansa. Hyksot olivat raakalaisia saapuessaan.

p.: siirtyivät endimmäisen välikauden alkaessa tai niillä main Arkaimiin luoden pronssikulttuurin ja kehittivät samalla taisteluvaunut.

T: Arkaim (vasarakirveskielen "Kyntökylä", "Arokylä", vsk. "Sotakylä" Warkaim?) oli n. 300 vuotta aikaisemmin kuin hyksot!

Hyksot saattoivat olla Arkaimista lähteteneiden iranilaisten johtamia seemiläisiä. Irani-laisia, kelttiläisiä ja vasarakirveskielisiä nimiä kuten juuri mm. (W)Arkaim on tuolloin vaikea erottaa toisistaa. Se sijaan tuo mitenkään ole germaaninen "Urheim", vaikka samaa tarkoittasi ja olsi samaa perua.

p.: Hyksot olivat finnoarjalaisia, joiden vaikutus näkyy suomen sanastossa vielä-kin. Suomessa asui hyksoja ja muita finnoarjalaisia, jotka toivat suomenkielen 2000 eaa. Sanasto oli ihan normaalia arjalaista ja protogermaania. Ei ole kyse mistään lainasanoista.

T.: Kun ei ole protopersermaniaa niin ei vaan ole! Se oli "vierastulokas MAMU-kansa, joka normalisoitiin osaksi suomalaisia. Tässä mielessä nykyiset suomalaiset ja saamelaisetkin vasta muodostuivat.

Tuo kantabaltin sana on "lengvas" = kevyt, helppo, vasen, huono, nykyliettu-aksi lengvas = kevyt, helppo (laivas = laiva), latviaksi säännöllisesti "liegs" = kevyt, helppo len-gvas on jaettu tavuihin kuten slaavikielissä ja -en- > -ie-, preussikielillä tuo muutos olisi "*langw(a)s", joka menee muotoon "langus"= kevyt (pr.). Preussissa on kuitenkin kaksi muutakin (tästä johtuvaa) laiva-sana: "laiwan", joka on jotvingin sanan kaltainen ja "laigus", joka jälkimmäinen hieman epäsännöllinen on myös kuuria.

Siloin taas kun -ng- on SUOMEN tapaan miellety yhtenä äänteenä, joka sulkee nenäpuolivokaalina tavun leng-vas samoin se olisi len-,lep-,lem- tai leb-, kaik- ki nuo tavut muuttuvat v:n edellä liettuassa yleensä tavuksi -lie-,kuurissa taval-lisesti tavuksi lei-, seelissä ja jotvingissa tavuksi lai-, skalvissa tavuksi lau- ja preussissa murteesta riippuen tavuiksi lai-, lau-, tai lan-. Seelissäkin se voi muuttua tavuksi lan-, ja liettuassa ja latviassa ja jotvingissa taas len- voi säilyä sellaisienaan. Tuo valikoima riippuu myös seuraavasta vokaalista: jos v:n pai-kalla olisi ollut p tai b, niin jotvingissa en- olisi muuttunut pitkäksi o:ksi, preus-sissa pitkäksi a:ksi ja kuurissa pitkäksi u:ksi, kuten vartalossa "lemp-" = liekki: liep- (lt), leip- (lv) . lāp- (kr.), lop- (jtv.), laip- (sl.).

Täälä lisää varsin mahdollisia vasarakirvessanoja.

" Englannin etymologinen väittää sanoja evankeliumi ja enkeli kreikkalaiseksi, joskin viittaa myös muuhun mieluiten indoeurooppaliasuuteen:

evangelist (n.)

late 12c., "Matthew,Mark,Luke or John",from Old French evangelist and directly from Late Latin evangelista,from Greek euangelistes "preacher of the gospel," literally "bringer of good news", from euangelizesthai "bring good news," from eu- "good" (see eu-)+angellein "announce", from angelos "messenger" (see angel).

angel (n.)     

14c.fusion of Old English engel (with hard -g-) and Old French angele, both from Latin angelus, from Greek angelos "messenger, envoy, one that announ-ces", possibly related to angaros "mounted courier," both from an unknown Ori-ental word (Watkins compares Sanskrit ajira- "swift"; Klein suggests Semitic sources). Used in Scriptural translations for Hebrew mal'akh (yehowah) "mes-senger (of Jehovah)", from base l-'-k "to send". An Old English word for it was aerendgast, literally "errand-spirit." 


word-forming element in modern use meaning "good, well," from comb. form of Greek eus "good," eu "well" (adv.), also "luckily, happily," from PIE *(e)su- "good" (cf. Sanskrit su- "good," Avestan hu- "good").

in = sisään

Old English in (prep.) "in, into, upon, on, at, among; about, during;" inne (adv.) "within, inside,"
from Proto-Germanic *in (cf.Old Frisian,Dutch,German, Gothic in, Old Norse i),
from PIE *en "in" (cf. Greek en, Latin in "in, into," Old Irish in, Welsh yn-, Old Church Slavonic on-).

Itse asiassa tuo sana vaikuttaa erittäin epäilyttävästi kantabalt(oslaav)ilta:

en-  = sisään, -k-/-g- tarkoittaa aiheutettua, pakotet- tua toimintaa/tapahtumista, ja -el-/-er- = kaltainen (adjektiivin johdin)

Liettuan verbi engti (engia, enge), suomalaisen korvaan [ängti], tarkoittaa "pai-nostaa", alistaa,ahdistaa,iestää,myös kuoria, mikä tulee ehkä tästä aisanteosta) suomen sana "ängetä" on kaikkein lähimpänä alkuperäistä konkreettista merki-tystä). Sanasta tulee ilmeisimmin myös suomen ankara ja ankkuri, ankeriaan yhteys on epävarma: kuurin angeris = "kyyn kaltainen", angis = kyy = pisto.

Kantabaltissa sanalla on ollut tarnsitiivisena kaksi aspektia *angti  ja *ingti, joista ensimmäinen "ahdistaa" joukoksi, ajaa (joukoon), jäkimmäinen taas enemmänkin joukosta erilleen, poistaa,
inkšti (inkčia,  inktė) = hangata (pois), rutista, marista  jumpitella > sm. inho
Ankštas = > ahdas, tukala  on partisiippi kadonnsta verbistä *ankšti = > ahtaa (joukoksi).

Saamen sanat voivat myös tulla aivan säännöllisesti esimerkiksi vasarakirveskielestä.

Ehkä tuo "joukkoon kuuluttaja" on se *angelis.

Sekä tuo alkutavu, että kreikan hyvä = eu ovat luultavasti kantaindoeuroopan sanasta en = sisään, joten enkeli on sisään-sisään-heittäjä/-päästäsjä.

(Huom! Enkeli ei ole tämän mukaan alun perin ollut välttämättä "hyvä", vaan hän on voinut olla myös rattoisan synnin "ulkopiieristä" sisään niihin toisiin piireihin heittävä olio.)

Muoto *enkti = ankkuroida: inkti on akkurida tappi puuhun (maahan jen.), ankti = ankuroida puu (laiva) tapin avulla.

Liettuan Inkaras = ankkuri, lainaa kuutista, Inkere (joki) = ankkurijoki (hyvä kytispaikka kuurilaisille merimiehille Suomelahden ja Laatoken liikennettä koskien.

Miten tuosta sitten tulisi enkeli siinä kysymys. Jos se siitä tulee, niin kieli on ilmeisimmin filistea.

Palestiina on Filistea ("Meriväen maa", aigeian kieli) kreikaksi. Filistean kielestä tulee ilmeisesti sellaisia sanoja kuin "tyranni" (laivan kapteeni),"kupari" (kypärä-aine, kypärä = koba, "Kypros" josta sitä mm. kaivettiin tulee tästä), kaasu (pal. arab. ghazon, al-ghazu, on tarkoittanut jotakin tiettyä kaasua, ehkä kuparinval-mistuksessa). 300-luvulla e.a.a.filistealaisit kuten heprealaisetkin vaihtoivat kiel-tä alueen lingua francaan arameaan. (liett.kepure, latv. cepure = lakki, kopa = dyyni, kupras = kupera, kumpu > ku(p)r(išk)as = dyyniläinen, kuurilainen).

Kantaindoeuroopan poistettavasta sudesta sanastosta (jossa lähinnä itäbaltti-laisesta vasarakirveskielestä on tehty "kantaindoeurooppaa") seuraavat liityvät asiaan:

*h₁ey-  = to go = mennä, tulla    

Skr. एति (éti),Av. aēiti,Gk. εἶμι (eimi), Lat. eō,Umbrian ier,Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers.  (aitiy)/, OCS ити (iti), Luw. (iti), Goth. iddja, Eng. ēode/--, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. идти (idti), Polish iść, Alb. ik

Tämä sana on ollut todellisuusessa *(h)enti = "sisääntyä"   (balttikielissä ei ole kotoperäisinä h-äänteitä).

*h₁eybʰ- =  to copulate = naida   

Gm. eiba/—, Skr. यभति (yabhati), Russ. ебать (jebat'), Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. οἴφω (oiphō)/, Polish jebać

Tämä sana on ollut *(h)en-b-ti > *embti, jossa tuo -b-  tarkoittaa a) edestakaista ja b) vastavuoroista toimintaa.

Tuosta tulee monia muitakin, esimerkiksi kutomista tarkoittavia sanoja, jossa pistellään edestakaisin, kiertoteitse mm. suomen "ammatti".

*h₁engʷ-  = "sisäänmeno", sm. henki, baltiassa putkensuu, rauhanen jne.

gland  = rauhanen, putken(suu)(laippa), "sisäämmeno": Alb. angërr, Gk. ἀδήν (adēn), Lat. inguen, ON ökkvinn, litt. inkstas = munuainen

Johtopäättellä -t/d- , joka infintiivissä ilmenee -s-:nä, sanasta tuleen "*ensti... enda" > liett ėsti  (ė́da, ė́dė) = syöttää, kuuriksi ëistun, pr. ëidi [äidi], êidi = se, joka syöttää, sosiaalinen äiti, suomessa erotukseksi "emosta", joka on biologinen äiti, liettuan > ė́di, ė́džia, monikossa ė́džios = kehto.