torstai, 17. joulukuu 2020

VAGUS-hermo

https://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2020/12/12/tarkein-aivohermosi-on-avain-kehosi-ja-mielesi-terveyteen-voit-herattaa-sen-jo

Tärkein aivohermosi saattaa olla avain kehosi ja mielesi terveyteen

Voit herättää sen jo yhdellä tietynlaisella uloshengityksellä.
Kokeile itse.

 
 

 

Heti alkuun tärkeä kysymys.

Kuinka stressaantuneeksi tunnet itsesi nyt?

1 Erittäin stressaantuneeksi.
2 Melko stressaantuneeksi.
3 Melko rentoutuneeksi.
4 Erittäin rentoutuneeksi.
 

 

Jos olet jo pitkään kokenut epämääräistä kuormittuneisuuden tunnetta, voi syy piillä hermostosi epätasapainotilassa.

Yhden ainoan hermon sähköärsytyksen väitetään tuovan helpotusta paitsi stressiin, pian myös moniin sairauksiin, kuten
ärtyvän suolen oireyhtymään, kakkostyypin diabetekseen, krooniseen kipuun, migreeniin, ahdistushäiriöihin ja masennukseen.

Kaikki kovin erilaisia sairauksia. Silti niiden taustalla saattaa olla samaa juurta oleva autonomisen hermoston toimintahäiriö.

 
 

Apu löytyisi vagushermon eli kiertäjähermon sähköisellä stimulaatiolla.

Lupaukset tuntuvat suurilta, ja osin ne ovat myös kateettomia, mutta toisaalta tarkkaa tutkimustietoa tämän hermon sähköisen ärsytyksen mahdollisuuksista ei myöskään vielä ole. Suomessa ainoastaan epilepsian hoidon suhteen se alkaa olla vakiintunut hoitomuoto.

Britanniassa esimerkiksi ahdistus- ja masennusoireita hoidetaan jo tällä hetkellä ihon alle laitettavalla sähköisellä implantilla. Aivan kuten rytmihäiriöitä tahdistimella.

Vagushermo on pika-apu stressiin

Olet ehkä huomannut, että stressi saa aikaan sinussa kehollisia oireita, jopa sairastumista.

Jo pitkään on ollut tiedossa, että tämän ihmeellisen hermon avulla stressi lievenee kehon tasolla – eikä siihen tarvita implantteja.

Jo yksi tietynlainen uloshengitys saa sen aikaan.

Miksi juuri uloshengitys?

Kokeile itse. Tähän rentoutumisen pika-apuun et tarvitse joogamattoa etkä edes tuolia.

1. Aktivoi vagushermoasi tietynlaisella uloshengityksellä

  • Huokaise helpotuksesta ja pidennä uloshengitystä.
  • Huomaa uloshengityksen jälkeinen pieni tauko.
  • Kuulostele olotilaasi. Lempeästi ja ilman arvostelua.
  • Hellitä kasvojen pieniä lihaksia.
  • Anna sisäänhengityksen tapahtua kuin itsestään.

Helpottiko yhtään?

Vastaa uudelleen. Millaiseksi tunnet itsesi nyt?

1 Erittäin stressaantuneeksi.
2 Melko stressaantuneeksi.
3 Melko rentoutuneeksi.
4 Erittäin rentoutuneeksi.
 

 

Selaa alaspäin, jos haluat kokeilla heti lisää. Luvassa on kolme pitkää hengitys- ja rentoutusharjoitusta.

Psykologi ja kouluttajapsykoterapeutti Minna Martin on auttanut ahdistuneisuudesta ja paniikkihäiriöistä kärsiviä hengitysharjoitusten avulla jo parinkymmenen vuoden ajan. Hän ohjaa kolme erityisesti vagushermoa herättelevää harjoitusta.
Varaa itsellesi vartti aikaa, laita kuulokkeet päähäsi ja kerro, mitä tunsit ja koit!

 
 

Tärkein aivohermosi ei rauhoita ainoastaan aivojasi vaan koko kehoasi

Hermostosi on kuvaannollisesti kuin keinulauta.

Se keinuu kiihdyttävän sympaattisen hermoston ja rauhoittavan parasympaattisen hermoston välillä.

Kun ne ovat tasapainossa, ihminen voi hyvin.

Mutta joskus pakene- tai taistele- hermosto saa ylivallan. Ja vaihde saattaa jäädä päälle.

Kuormittavan pitkäksi aikaa.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Oli vastassa sapelihammastiikeri tai tyly somekirjoittelija, mielen aiheuttama reaktio kehoon on todellinen: syke nousee, vatsa menee tilttiin ja aivot käyvät kuumina.

Nyt pitäisi saada rauhoittumisesta vastaava hermosto mukaan peliin tai se on menetetty.

Vaikeus on siinä, että kyse on tahdosta riippumattoman eli autonomisen hermoston alaisesta toiminnasta. Kuinka pysäytät kiihtymisen kierteen sydämessä tai suolistossa?

Se onnistuu, jos tuntee keinon.

Sinuun on sisäänrakennettuna eräänlainen jarru, jonka avulla pystyt pysäyttämään tahdosta riippumattoman sympaattisen hermoston kiihtymisen.

Syke laskee, ruoansulatus lähtee taas käyntiin, ja aivoilla on rauha prosessoida asioita.

Tuo jarrupoljin on juuri vagushermo.

 
 

Tämä rauhoittava hermo on osa tahdosta riippumatonta hermostoa eli autonomista hermostoa. Mutta kiinnostavaa kyllä, tästä huolimatta sinulla on siihen aina halutessasi tietoinen yhteys.

Uloshengityksesi avulla.

Mutta mitä erityistä juuri uloshengityksessä voi olla?

Kokeile.

 

2. Aktivoi vagushermoasi rentouttamalla kasvot ja leuat

Istu alas ja anna itsellesi kuusi minuuttia aikaa.
Kiertäjähermo hermottaa kasvojen ja nielun alueen lihaksia.
Niiden rentouttaminen yhdessä uloshengityksen kanssa saa kehosi keskeisen viestinviejän välittämään tietoa aivoille: "ei ole hätää".

13-29-1_ivb6yobj.jpg
 
 
 

Millaiseksi tunnet itsesi tämän jälkeen?

1 Erittäin stressaantuneeksi.
2 Melko stressaantuneeksi.
3 Melko rentoutuneeksi.
4 Erittäin rentoutuneeksi.
 
 
 

 

Psyykkinen trauma voi aiheuttaa hermostollisen epätasapainotilan

Hermostosi keinulauta on tavallisesti melko tasapainossa. Välillä paiskitaan hommia kuormittavissa olosuhteissa. Sitten taas palaudutaan.

Joillakin työ tai elämäntilanne aiheuttaa pitkäkestoista stressiä, josta ei ehdi palautua.

Joillakin voi olla taustalla psyykkistä traumaa. Stressitila saattaa jäädä päälle, eikä vagushermon jarru enää toimi.

Koko autonominen hermosto saattaa ajautua epätasapainoon.

Koska tämä yksi keskeinen aivohermo vaikuttaa meihin niin kokonaisvaltaisesti, voi stressillä pitkittyessään olla ikäviä seurauksia kehon ja mielen terveyden kannalta.

Miten tämä keskeinen superhermo meihin sitten oikein vaikuttaa?

 
 

Vagushermoa kutsutaan kehon ihmeelliseksi suojelijaksi

 
 

Kiertäjähermo on kehosi tärkein viestinviejä aina suolistosta ylös aivorunkoon asti.

Se on pisin hermoistasi ja sen lonkerot yltävät oikeastaan kaikkiin keskeisiin elinjärjestelmiisi.

Hermosto, hormonitoiminta ja immuunipuolustusjärjestelmä. – Ällistyttävää kyllä, tämä yksi ainoa aivohermo pitää yllä kaikkien näiden tasapainoa.

Eikä tässä vielä kaikki.

 

 

 

Suolistossasi vagushermo

Välittää aistimuksia suolesta keskushermostoon.
Se myös parantaa ruoansulatusta lisäämällä ruoansulatusentsyymien eritystä.
Tutkimusnäyttö puuttuu, mutta tästä syystä on pohdittu, voisiko sen stimulaatiosta olla apua ärtyvän suolen oireyhtymästä kärsiville.

 

 

 

Sisäelimissäsi vagushermo

Säätelee muun muassa insuliinin eritystä sekä glukoositasapainoa.
Siksi siihen kohdistuu suuria odotuksia juuri kakkostyypin diabeteksen hoidon suhteen.

 

 

 

Sydämessäsi vagushermo

Laskee sykettä ja verenpainetta ja nostaa sydämen lyöntivälien vaihtelua eli sykevälin vaihtelua .
Myös sydän- ja verisuonitautien kohdalla vagushermostimulaation mahdollisuutta ollaan tutkimassa.

 

 

 

Keuhkoissasi ja palleassasi vagushermo

Alkaa toimia pallean liikkeen myötä.

 
 

 

3. Aktivoi vagushermoasi uloshengityksen jälkeisellä lepotauolla

Kokeile hengittää niin, että vatsakin elää hengityksen tahdissa.

Laita kädet vatsan päälle aistimaan liikettä.

Nyt sait todennäköisesti myös palleasi elämään.

Jos tunne on vieras, hengität kenties tavallisesti liian pinnallisesti rintakehän alueella.

Kun annat uloshengityksen jälkeen syntyä pienen lepohetken, pallea rentoutuu kuin itsestään.

Kun pallea liikkuu rauhallisesti, kiertäjähermosi herää.

Kokeile.

13-29-1_ghclcy34.jpg
 
 
 

Tuntuuko jo paremmalta?

Kuinka stressaantuneeksi koet itsesi nyt?

1 Erittäin stressaantuneeksi.
2 Melko stressaantuneeksi.
3 Melko rentoutuneeksi.
4 Erittäin rentoutuneeksi.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

Suusi alueella vagushermo


Osallistuu puheen tuottamiseen ja nielemiseen.
Kehon ja mielen tila kuuluu äänensävyssä juuri kiertäjähermon vuoksi.
Nielun alueen rentoutus saa kiertäjähermon heräämään.

 

 

 

Kasvojen alueella vagushermo

Osallistuu ilmeisiin ja mikroilmeisiin.
Kehon ja mielen tila näkyy kasvoilla juuri kiertäjähermon vuoksi.
Kasvolihasten rentoutus saa kiertäjähermon heräämään.

 

 

 

Aivoissasi vagushermo

Välittää kehon viestejä aivoille ja säätää hermoston tasapainoa.
Parantaa tunnesäätelystä vastaavan etuotsalohkon toimintaa.
On mukana tasapainottamassa kivulle herkistyneiden alueiden toimintaa.

 

 

 

Tämä kehon läpi kulkeva hermo saa jo suolistossa aikaan mielihyvähormoni serotoniinin tuotannon, ja välittää tätä aivoihin.
Serotoniinin vajaus voi ilmetä masennuksena ja kroonisena väsymyksenä ja sen puute voi aiheuttaa äkkipikaista käytöstä.
Tämä on yksi niistä syistä, jonka takia vagushermostimulaation toivotaan tuovan apua mielenterveyden ongelmiin.

 
 

Kaiken lisäksi kiertäjähermo säätelee immuunipuolustusta ja laskee tulehdusta

Kehosi ihmeellinen suojelija saa aikaan hermovälittäjäaine asetyylikoliinin erittymisen, jonka ansiosta tulehdustilasi vaimenee.

Tämä ihmehermo suojaa tulehdukselta lisäksi typpioksidin vapautumisen kautta.

Typpioksidi toimii immuunipuolustuksessa antibakteeristen, antiviraalisten sekä antimikrobisten ominaisuuksiensa avulla.

Se voi saada aikaan myös syöpäsolujen solukuoleman eli apoptoosin käynnistymisen.

On melko uskomatonta, miten yhden hermon rooli voikin olla niin keskeinen.

Ei olekaan ihme, että odotukset ovat suuret.

 
 
 
 
 
 

Lopulta tämä kehon ihmeellinen suojelija on pelkkä viestinviejä kehon ja mielen eri järjestelmien välillä.

Vagushermon aktivointi ei siis tuo ihmeparannusta.

Mutta kiistatonta on näyttö siitä, että hengitys- ja rentoutusharjoitukset saavat autonomisen hermoston tasapainottumaan.

Haittaa ne eivät tee kellekään.

4. Aktivoi vagushermoasi selinmakuulla tehtävällä kiertoliikkeellä

Ota mukava makuuasento ja varaa viisi minuuttia aikaa.

Kiertäjähermo saa kiertoliikkeessä herättelevää venytystä.
Kierto myös puristaa ja hellittää esimerkiksi sisäelimiä ja palleaa, joita vagus hermottaa.

13-29-1_9fv52h4m.jpg
 
 
 

Onko kaiken tämän jälkeen yhtään rennompi olo?

Millaiseksi koet olotilasi nyt?

1 Erittäin stressaantuneeksi.
2 Melko stressaantuneeksi.
3 Melko rentoutuneeksi.
4 Erittäin rentoutuneeksi.

torstai, 17. joulukuu 2020

KONE OY:N PALSTA JULKAISEE HEWONPASKAA WTC-TORNEISTA TOTAALISEN TIETÄMÄTTÖMYYDEN RINTAÄÄNELLÄ; NÄINKÖ KONE OY:SSÄ "LASKETAAN" JA "TUTKITAAN"



Skepsis - Keskustelu <no-reply@nsd.fi>
 
ke 16.12.2020 15.22
 
Sinut on bannattu sivustolta 16.03.2021 13:22:34 asti. Tänä aikana et voi kirjoittaa uusia viestejä tai vastata viesteihin. Mikäli koet, että bannaus ei ole ollut aiheellinen, voit perustella kantasi moderaattoreille Palate-sivun kautta.

Perustelu bannaukselle:
Toistuva keskustelupalstan sääntöjen vastainen toiminta. Ei edelleenkään copy-paste palsta. Katso lisätietoja:
 


RK: Olette poistaneet rikollisella tavalla ketjun ensimmäisen viestin, johon otsikko viittaa!

NYT OTSIKKO ON PANTU VIITTAMAAN TÄHÄN,JA MINUT HAUKKUMAAN KONE OY:TÄ SIITÄ ETTÄ SE SÄIKÄHTI, JA TORJUI EKONOMI KARISEN LISÄPASKAN-NUKSEN "TEKNIIKASTA", jos ta ei tiedä mitään kuten eivät muutkaan WTC-salkkarit!

Viesti, jonka olette JÄTTÄNEET paikalleen ON copypastea ILMAN POISTAMAANNE, KAIKKEA MUUTA KUIN COPY-PASTE-VIESTIÄ!!!

http://keskustelu.skepsis.fi/Message/Message/404224

" Risto Koivula, 12/15/2020 8:24:43 AM, 404224


https://puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi/esko-karinen/wtc-turmat-vastuullinen-sananvapaus-puraisi-vai-onko-se-uussuomettumista/

" WTC-turmat: Vastuullinen sananvapaus puraisi. Vai onko se uussuomettumista?

Esko Karinen

14.12.2020 13:05

Olisin jatkanut WTC-kirjoitusteni sarjaa viimeisellä havainnoista kertovalla kirjoituksella, mutta US:n moderaattori oli toista mieltä.

Olisin sen jälkeen siirtynyt erilaisten skenaarioiden käsittelyyn, ja siinä ei ymmär-tääkseni ole ongelmaa. Republikaanipresidenteistä on ainakin tähän asti saanut vapaasti esittää salaliittoteorioita.

Demokraattipresidenteistä en ole ihan varma. Barack Obamaa ei ole juurikaan sa-nottu tyhmäksi eikä Joe Bideniä ainakaan vielä ole todettu kiinalaisten juoksupojaksi.

Pidätyksistä kiikastaa

Ongelma sananvapauden vastuullisuudesta syntyi ilmeisesti siitä, voiko havaintoa julkaista eli voiko sanoa, keitä epäilyksenalaisia henkilöitä New Yorkin poliisi pidätti vielä turmapäivän aikana, iltapäivällä 11.9.2001.

Olisin kuvitellut että tällainen havainto olisi ollut julkaisukelpoinen, mutta ei se ole. Kuvittelin että vastuulliselta lehdistöltä on jäänyt nämä tapahtumat huomaamatta, mutta ei ole. Julkaisemattomuuteen on parempia syitä, juurikin tämä vastuullisuus. Onhan tämä hiukan outoa kun Suomessa nimet pitää salata vaikka ne on kenen tahansa luettavissa kunhan nettiä hiukan kaivelee.

Mutta ei jatketa muutenkaan enää havaintojen pohjalta. Seuraavaksi käsittelen erilaisia skenaarioita, jos US suo.

Näissäkin joudun joistakin skenaarioista puhumaan kiertäen ja kaarrellen. Ja mahdollisesti en mainitse jotakin niistä ollenkaan.

Mikäli kirjoitustani ei näy, US katsoo skenaariotkin kielletyiksi. Tarkoitus on ensin kertoa, millaisia skenaarioita on keksitty lentokoneisiin liittyen. WTC-turmien alkuperäisissä uutisfilmeissä kun on joitakin outoja elementtejä, jotka eivät ole sopusoinnussa fysiikan lakien kanssa.

Mikäli tämä onnistuu, seuraa kuvaus erilaisista skenaarioista tekijöiden suhteen.

Vaihtoehtona pysyy tietenkin aina se salaliittoteoria, jossa Afganistanin luolissa syn-tyneen idean toteuttaa melko runsas joukko miehiä, jotka pitävät toisiinsa yhteyttä harvinaisen vähän. Voisi sanoa, että suorastaan robottimaisella tarkkuudella nämä sitten suorittavat yhtäaikaisen teon useilla eri lentokoneilla. Vieläpä lähes täysin onnistuen. Tai itse asiassa onnistuen yli odotusten.

Harva olisi odottanut 400 metriä korkeiden teräsrakenteisten tornitalojen sortuvan littanaksi, varsinkin kun ne oli mitoitettu kestämään tuollainen törmäys sekä erinäisiä tulipaloja. Näiden kahden tornitalon lisäksi 47-kerroksinen teräsrakenteinen toimistotalo sortui ilmeisesti pelkästä myötätunnosta.

Asiallista onnettomuustutkintaa ei voitu tehdä, kun a) maa joutui sotaan, ja b) koska päättäjille tuli niin paha mieli ettei tutkintaa voitu aloittaa ajoissa.

Poikkeuksellisesti tätä kirjoitustani ei voi kommentoida. Kommentoinnista voisi paljastua jotakin mitä US:n lukijoiden ei tarvitse tietää. "



RK: NYT MINUT ON PANTU MUKA "PAHEKSUMAAN" SITÄ, ETTÄ KONE OY SÄI-KÄHTI JA KATKAISI EKONOMI KARISEN SKITSOVUODATUKSEN NOISTA (IKIO- MISTA) "TEKNISITÄ MAHDOTTOMUUKSISTA(AN)" - EIKÄ SITÄ VUODATUSTA!!! TASAN SAMOJA TERRORITEMPPUJA, JOILLA MATTI APUSEN BILDERBERG-PORUKKA AAMULEHDESSÄ YRITTI ENSIN HOUKUTELLA MUA "KANNATTA-MAAN WTC-RÄJÄYTYSTEORIAA (kuten "kommunistin toimenkuvaan" kuuluisi...) ja sitten "ikuisen bannauksen" uhalla olemaan ainakin paljastamatta ja haukkumatta salkkareiden absoluuttista tietämättömyyttä ja heille USA:sta syötettyjä pölhöteorioita!

Soittiko Bilderberg-Apumatti vai KONE oy? Vai Karinen?

Kehottaisin teitä palauttamaan tämän avausviestin sinne. Tuo näyttää erittäin koomi-selta sosiaalisessa mediassa, kun olen lainannut sekä linkit että tekstit, ja jokainen joka avaa linkin näkee, miten olette asian vääristänyt.

Tämä ENSIMMÄINEN VIESTI ei ollut nmitään copy-pstea VAAN TÄYTTÄ ASIAA, tieteen viimeinen sana tästä aiheesta:


 

KONE OY:N KESKUSTELUPALSTA JULKAISEE HEWONPASKAA HOURUA WTC-TORNEISTA TOTAALISEN TIETÄMÄTTÖMYYDEN RINTAÄÄNELLÄ...
 

NÄINKÖ KNE OY:SSÄ "LASKETAAN" JA "TUTKITAAN"???

EIKÄ KESKUSTELUA SALLITA!!!

 

Lattiat just irtosivat - ihan kuten PITIKIN!

 

https://puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi/esko-karinen/virheelliset-vaitteet-wtc-turmissa-saivat-laajan-julkisuuden/

Pannukakkuteoria Pannukakkuteoria pääsi globaaliin levitykseen. Lattiat litistyivät toistensa päälle ja WTC-tornit olisivat muka sortuneet kuin kerrokset olisivat pannukakkuja. Mutta kun eivät lattiat…
puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi
 
 

Virheelliset väitteet WTC-turmissa saivat laajan julkisuuden. Nanotermiitti

Esko Karinen 8.12.2020 23:10

Pannukakkuteoria

Pannukakkuteoria pääsi globaaliin levitykseen.  Lattiat litistyivät toistensa päälle ja WTC-tornit olisivat muka sortuneet kuin kerrokset olisivat pannukakkuja.

Mutta kun eivät lattiat irtoa.

Lattiat kiersivät keskirunkoa, eivätkä ne irtoa kiinnityksistään kuin vasta rakennuksen sortuessa. Eli tässä on tehty johtopäätös väärässä järjestyksessä, lattioiden irtoami- nen ei aiheuta romahdusta vaan lattiat lähtevät liikkumaan vasta kun teräksinen keskirunko alkaa painua kasaan. "

RK: Paskaa. Lattiat hajoavat, kun ylhäältä putoaa romua. Juuri se on etenevä murtuma.

Sitten vasta nurjahtavat pilarit, jotka menettävät näin sivutentansa.

Pilareiden lämpötilalla ei ole merkitystä silloin.

Virheellinen yliopistotutkimus WTC-7: romahtamisesta:

"Tutkimuksen" perusvirhe on, että siinä väitetään "VIRALLISTEN TUTKIJOIDEN VÄITTÄVÄN, että KRIITTISEN PILARIN NURJAHDUS OLISI OLLUT ENSIMMÄINEN ROMAHDUSILMIÖ".

Noin ei kuitenkaan ole, kuten aineistosta ja videoista ilmenee. Vasta välipohjien putoaminen rakennuksen päädyssä lähetti liikkeelle kriittisen pilarin nurjahduksen - ihan kuten pitikin.

https://hameemmias.vuodatus.net/lue/2014/09/wtc-torneja-ei-rajaytetty

https://hameemmias.vuodatus.net/lue/2020/04/a-new-quack-reseach-on-wtc-7-collapse

Hulsey, J.L., Quan, Z., and Xiao, F., 2020:

A Structural Reevaluation of the Collapse of World Trade Center 7 – Final Report.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Mines, Institute of Northern Engineering, Universityof Alaska Fairbanks

WTC 7 -rakennuksen romahduksen rakenteellinen uudelleenarvio - Loppuraportti

https://files.wtc7report.org/file/public-download/A-Structural-Reevaluation-of-the-Collapse-of-World-Trade-Center-7-March2020.pdf

Hallituksen NIST:n raportti WTC-7:sta, jota "tutkimus kritisoi":

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/NCSTAR/ncstar1a.pdf

Karinen on yhtä pykälää rehellisempi kuin "Alaskan_rakennteoreetikot":
 
Esko Karinen: " Jopa virallinen tutkimusraportti tyrmää pannukakkuteorian. Pannukakkuteoria pääsi kuitenkin laajaan kansainväliseen levitykseen turman jälkeen.

Teorian laati piskuinen insinööritoimisto jolla ei ollut juuri muuta toimintaa. Hämmästyttävää.

Isoilla toimistoilla ei ollut mitään sanottavaa, mutta kimeä-ääninen Mikki Hiiri tulee ja sanoo: ”Sata kerrosta yhdellä iskulla”!  Ja kaikki uskovat välittömästi.  Kuka tämän Mikki Hiiren oli tilannut ja eikö ketään viisaampaa löytynyt lausunnonantajaksi?

Varmaan monet uskovat vieläkin pannukakkuteoriaan.  Ihmiset ehkä tuntevat vetoa yksinkertaiseen ajatteluun ja helppoihin selityksiin. "

RK: "Pannukakkuteoria" on olkiukko, johon ei kannata haaskata aikaa. Salkkarit eivät kritisoineet todellista virallista teoriaa vaan jonkun jullisuushakuisen sivullisen pannukakkuteoriaa. Vanha temppu sinänsä.

EK: " Johdotus

Pian sortumisen jälkeen aprikoitiin laajasti, olisiko rakennukset voitu purkaa panos-tamalla rakennus etukäteen. Tähän sanottiin, että sehän vaatisi kilometrien pituiset kaapelien vedot rakennukseen.  Johan vuokralaiset ihmettelisivät, jos kaapeleita vedeltäisiin kerrosten läpi ja kilometritolkulla.

Tämä on virheajattelua, suorastaan huijataan ihmisiä virheellisille ajatuspoluille. Nimittäin voidaan käyttää radiosytyttimiä.  Ei tarvitse vetää kaapeleita. "

RK: Torneja ei voi purkaa PILAREITA räjäyttämällä muutoin kuin kaatamalla ne.

EK: ”Trotyyliä ei käytetty”

Koska räjähdysääniä ei ollut, räjähdysaineita ei käytetty.  Varsinkin WTC 7:n tutkimuksessa vedotaan siihen ettei räjähdysääniä kuulunut.

Väärin,on myös äänettömiä räjähdysaineita.Lähinnä tulee mieleen termiitti. WTC-7:n metallinäytteessä havaittiin runsasta korroosiota, se on merkki termiitin käytöstä. "

RK: Termiitti ei ole räjähdysaine vaan hitsausaine. Sitä on voitu käyttää rakennettaessa pilareiden liitoksissa.

EK: ”Termiittiä ei käytetty”

Virallisessa NIST:n tornien onnettomuusraportissa mainitaan, että termiitti olisi räjähdysaineena liian hidasta eikä voi ajatella sillä olevan osuutta sortumisissa.

Väärin. On olemassa myös nopeaa termiittiä.

Nopea termiitti

Hypoteettisesti, jos ajatellaan että rakennus olisi purettu tarkoituksellisesti, olisi tietenkin käytetty radiosytyttimiä.

Ja sitten mielellään nanotermiittiä. Kun jauhe on erityisen hienojakoista, se tehoaa nopeasti. Erittäin nopeasti.

Nanotermiittiä käyttävät vain sotavoimat. Nanotermiitti ei ole mitään rautakauppatavaraa.

Nanotermiitistä kietaistaan nauha teräsonteloprofiilin ympärille, mielellään 45 asteen kulmassa, asennetaan sytytin ja se on sillä selvä. Joka viidenteen kerrokseen riittää, ehkä riittää joka kymmenenteen.  Mistäs minä tietäisin.  Radiosytyttimet ajastetaan keskenään. "

K: Hewonpaskaa. Miksi ei sitten käytetty "Hämeemmiähen" mällinpudotusmallia?

https://hameemmias.vuodatus.net/lue/2014/09/wtc-torneja-ei-rajaytetty

 

[www.tiedonantaja.fi]" "Muhammedin tunnustukset" Yhdysvaltain puolustusministeriö Pentagon kertoi viime viikon torstaina, että Guantá- namon vankileirillä pidettävä "al-Qaidan kolmanneksi merkittävin johtaja" Khalid Sheikh Muhammed on tunnustanut syyskuun 11.päivän 2001 terrori-iskut.
hameemmias.vuodatus.net
 
 

EK: " Aivan kuten palomiehet kertoivat, kuului pum-pum-pum, radiosytyttimet sytytti-vät termiitin hallitussa sarjassa.  Jos ne pamahtelisivat epäjärjestyksessä, rakennus sortuisi minne sattuu, silloin se ei enää sortuisi omalle jalanjäljelleen.  Rakennus on lopulta hyvin kapea ja korkea.  On tehtävä tarkkaa työtä ja suunniteltava tarkasti että rakennus sortuu ilman että se kaatuu. "

RK: PILAREITA RÄJÄYTTÄMÄLLÄ TORNIT KAATUVAT ARMOTTA.

Järeiden rakenneosien katkeilemisen vetojännitysten vaikutuksesta ääniä ei sen enempää kuin niiden aiheuttamaa vavahteluakaan ei voi erottaa aistivaraisesti räjäh-dysten aiheuttamasta vastaavasta katkeilusta varsinkaan, kun kenelläkään ei ole kokemusta kummastakaan tässä mittakaavassa. Paukkuminen tulkitaan "selkäytimestä" "räjähdyksiksi", vaikka syitä on monia muitakin.

EK: "Nanotermiittiä käyttävällä taholla pitää olla suhteita sotavoimiin,joko USA:n, Ve- näjän tai vaikkapa Israelin sotavoimiin. Kyllä varmaan Englannillakin sitä on. Olisiko Suomen puolustusvoimilla? En yhtään tiedä enkä tiedä vastaisivatko vaikka kysyisin.

Nanotermiittiä havaittu

Erittäin monet ihmiset keräsivät WTC-turmasta kertynyttä pölyä ikkunalaudoiltaan purkkiin. Surullinen muisto surullisesta päivästä.

Nyt näitä pölyjä on analysoitu.Enimmin on tietenkin betonipölyä,sitten asbestikuituja. Mutta pöly sisältää myös teräksen mikrorakeita.

Mikrorakeissa näkyy nanotermiittiä. "

RK: Paskat "näkyy!". Kun ei edes tiedetä, mitä haetaan!

EK: " Kemia on ihmeellinen tiede. Uima-altaallisesta vettä voidaan havaita pisara doping-ainetta.

Ja mikrorakeesta terästä voi havaita pienen jäämän nanotermiittiä.

Huh. On se kovaa. Tappaa 3000 ihmistä. Tieten tahtoen. Ai niin mutta sehän olisi jo uusi salaliittoteoria. Pysytään toistaiseksi havainnoissa.  "

K: Nuo eivät ole havaintoja.

PS: Miksi muuten Kansan Uutiset lykkää aina kaikkikusetuhölynpölyt Suomessa ensimmäisenä?

https://www.kansanuutiset.fi/artikkeli/1998144-nanotermiittia-new-yorkin-polyssa

https://puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi/esko-karinen/virheelliset-vaitteet-wtc-turmissa-saivat-laajan-julkisuuden/

Esko Karinen  Kirjoittaja 9.12. 2020 22:16

Tästä on pelastuneiden kertomuksia että katkenneista sprinklerien putkista osuma-kohdassa valui vettä. Ja että se valui portaikkoon. Minne se nyt muuallekaan olisi valunut? Ikkunoista?

Isoin ongelma tässä sortumisessa on se, kun talon runko ei ollut lämmennyt millään tavoin ja se silti sortui. "

RK: Tämä on virhepäätelmä "oma tietämättömyys "todisteena"": "kritisoija" tuntee teräksen pettämistavoista vain pehmenemisen kuumetessa - joka onkin oikein paha heikkous, ettei ollenkaan sen puoleen.

Tässä tapauksessa stabiilisuuden vie sivutuennan muutos: yhden stabiloivan väli-pohjakiinnityksen katoaminen pudottaa pilarin kantavuuden kyseisellä paikalla nel-jännekseen, kahden allekkaisen kiinnityksen katoaminen pudottaa sen yhdeksän-teen osaan alkuperäisestä. Pilarien ei välttämättä tarvitse kuumeta lainkaan romahtaakseen.

EK: " Tutkintaraportissa mainitaan, että squidit, savupöllähdykset aiheutuivat kokoonpainuvista rakenteista, kun todellisuudessa asia on päinvastoin. Näiden savunpöllähdysten tähden rakennus sortui. "

K: Ei mitään tolkkua: YHDENKIN KESKIPILARIN RÄJÄYTTÄMINEN POIKKI YH-DESTÄ PAIKASTA lennättäisi muutaman ulkoseinäelementin irti ja rikkoisi taatusti myös paksuimmatkin ikkunat lähistön ulkoseinistä!

EK: " Sitten se pienempi ongelma on, miten ensimmäinen sortuva kerros sortui, kun on olemassa vakavampiakin teräsrakennusten paloja missä rakennukset eivät ole sortuneet. "

RK: Tämän vakavampia terärakenteiden paloja ei ole ainakaan toistaiseksi ollut missään.

Se ensimmäisen kerroksen sortuminen, on just suurin ongelma ... Siitä se lähtee. Se ei kuitenkaan ole tieteellinen ongelma, kun tonneittain jumbojetin rungon magnesiu-mia palaa iskun vaurioittamassa rakennuksessa, ja tavallistakin palokuormaa voi olla satoja kiloja neliölle esimerkiksi varastotiloissa.
Lisäksi osa paloista alemmissa kerroksissa tapahtui vajaassa hapessa tuottaen moottorienkin käyttämää ärhäkkää polttoainetta häkää, hiilimonoksidia, joka sitten nousi erilaisia putki- ja kaapelilävis-tyksiä pitkin palamaan vaarallisimmassa paikassa iskualueella

***.

https://puheenvuoro.uusisuomi.fi/esko-karinen/wtc-turmat-9-11-2001-tekijat-ketka-olivat-kaiken-takana/

WTC-turmat 9-11-2001: Tekijät. Ketkä olivat kaiken takana?

maanantai, 14. joulukuu 2020

Trump linnaan? Vai Obama?

Kommentoidaan myöhemmin. Juttu on uskomattoman tyhmä.

 

 

https://www.kansanuutiset.fi/artikkeli/4392111-voiko-trump-viela-paatya-vankilaan

4392112-759x500.jpg
 
Presidentti Donald Trump kuvattuna Valkoisessa taloudessa viime viikon torstaina.

Voiko Trump vielä päätyä vankilaan?

maanantai, 23. marraskuu 2020

"Suomen (Hölösen) Ulkomainen Akateemikko" Jared Diamond "parantelee teknologisesti ihmislajia" - pyhäkoulun tiedoillaan...

https://www.sedaily.com/NewsVIew/1KV6BDN9US


Diamond “Finite Resources and Human Inequality will weigh human life down”

Harari “Whether could handle the body and brain or not affects the destiny of a country”

Diamond will give keynote speech at 'the Seoul Forum 2016' on May 11 in Korea

“What will be the greatest driving force for changes of human society in the future?”

Guess what would be the answer from two great scholars-Jared Diamond, who is called Charles Darwin of 21st century and the author of ‘Guns, germs and steel’, and Yuval Harari, who is a professor of history and the author of the international bestseller ‘Sapiens’?

The big talk of the century which Dr.Diamond and Prof.Harari had had, was arranged by Seoul Economic Daily, one of the oldest economic daily in Korea, celebrating the Seoul Forum 2016.‘SEOUL FORUM 2016’ will take place at the Shilla Hotel in Seoul, Korea, from May 11 to 12.

1KV6BDN9US_81.jpg

This is the world’s first talk between two scholars through the e-mail.Dr.Diamond and Prof. Harari respectively located in USA and Israel, so have exchanged opinions by sending and receiving E-mail. Seoul Economic Daily made a request to Prof. Yuval Harari to ask six questions. However Prof. Yuval Harari answered the questions first and then threw the questions to Dr. Diamond with his comments. Dr. Diamond also gave his opinion about those questions and comments. And as Prof.Harari added his opinion on Dr. Diamond’s answer. Dr, Diamond’s final responses will be unveiled at the ‘SEOUL FORUM 2016’ from May 11 to 12.

And for now Seoul Economic Daily releases a full talk of two great scholars ahead of the ‘SEOUL FORUM 2016’.

https://youtu.be/AvEc3hD9hOg

1. What will be the greatest driving force for changes of human society in the future?

Prof. Harari: The greatest driving force will undoubtedly be technology, especially computer science and biotechnology. Whereas in the past the main products of the human economy were guns, steel, textiles and food, the main products of the twenty-first-century economy will be bodies, brains and minds.

Throughout history humans have changed the world around them - they cleared fo-rests, domesticated plants and animals, dug irrigation canals and built roads, bridges and cities. But humans did not have the power to change themselves. We still have the same bodies and minds we had in the Stone Age. In the coming century, humans will of course continue to change the outside world, but for the first time in history they will also gain the power to reshape their own bodies and minds.

Dr. Diamond: While technology will affect practical features of our lifestyle,the funda- mental factors affecting our lifestyle will continue to be two,just as they are at present: finite resources, and human inequality.

With regard to finite resources, much of the work of economists is focused on growth, as if that will forever be possible. But a textbook of economics carried on its title page the following sentence: “In our world of finite resources, the only people who believe in the possibility of indefinitely continued growth are - idiots, and economists.”

Limits to the growth of human populations and consumption are set by world resour-ces: water,seafood, land and soil for agriculture, sunlight, space,and other resources. Already, with human population and consumption just as they are at present, a sub-stantial fraction of the world‘s people are living below the poverty level. The world currently holds almost seven and a half billion people, of whom South Koreans and Americans and Europeans and Japanese and Australians enjoy a First World life-style and consumption rates, while most people make do with consumption rates up to 32 times lower. If all of those poor countries (including China and India and others) succeed in their goal of achieving First World consumption rates, then the world’s consumption will be equivalent to that of 75 billion people with the same distribution of consumption rates as at present. While one hears some optimists talking about how the world might perhaps be able to cope with nine billion people, I haven‘t encountered anyone silly enough to say explicitly that the world can hold 75 billion people. Nevertheless, there was a famous economist 20 years ago who said that humans could continue their current rate of population growth indefinitely. If one goes through the numbers, that means that the Earth will hold 10 people per square meter of land in 774 years, a mass of people equal to the mass of the Earth in less than 2,000 years, and a mass of people equal to the mass of the universe in 6,000 years. I‘m glad that I won‘t be alive in that world where I have to share my one square meter of land with nine other people.

In short, resource limits will be one of the two greatest driving forces for change. The other factor driving change will be inequality among the Earth’s people. In today‘s globalized world, poor people in remote countries (like Somalia and Afghanistan) still have access to information about lifestyles of people in rich countries. In today’s globalized world, those people in Somalia and Afghanistan and other poor countries now also have the means to emigrate to rich countries, where they want to achieve a First World lifestyle now, rather than wait for their grandchildren to achieve it 80 years from now. We can‘t have a stable world as long as there are big inequalities among human societies around the globe. Those inequalities are already a big driving force for change today: just read the newspaper any day. They will be an even bigger force in the future.


Prof. Harari: Inequality and resource scarcity will definitely be major forces for change. You cannot really talk about technological change without taking into ac-count the interplay with society and with the environment. But it should be noted that future technological breakthroughs may change the very meaning of “inequality” and of “resources”. With nineteenth-century technology, it was utterly impossible to feed 7 billion people, and even royal families suffered extremely high rates of child mortality. Today, for the first time in history, many more people die from eating too much than from eating too little, and a child born in the slums of Shanghai has a better chance of reaching adulthood than a crown prince 200 years ago. Hence to be poor in 2016 means something quite different from being poor in 1816.

At the same time, the technologies that have enabled us to overcome famine and plagues have also produced completely new problems, such as global warming, which nobody in 1816 feared or expected. Back then, people couldn’t imagine that human industry might change the global climate.

In the coming decades breakthroughs in fields such as biotechnology and artificial intelligence may make present-day concerns irrelevant - while creating far worse un-foreseen problems. For example, whereas today we are concerned about inequality between different human nations, by 2100 the main concern may be inequality between different human species or even between humans and robots.



2. How do you expect the future of human society after 100 and 200 years?


Prof. Harari: I don‘t think there will be humans around in 200 years. We will gain so much power, that either we will destroy ourselves, or we will upgrade ourselves into something completely different. The beings that will dominate the planet in the year 2200 will be much more different from us than we are different from chimpanzees or Neanderthals.

Ever since the appearance of life on earth, four billion years ago, life was governed by the laws of natural selection. During all these eons, whether you were a virus or a dinosaur, you evolved according the principles of natural selection. In addition, no matter what strange and bizarre shapes life undertook, it remained confined to the organic realm. Whether a cactus or a whale, you were made of organic compounds. Now science might replace natural selection with intelligent design, and might even start creating non-organic life forms. After four billion years of organic life shaped by natural selection, science is ushering the era of inorganic life shaped by intelligent design. Nobody has the faintest idea what the consequences will be.


Dr. Diamond:That depends upon what human society will be like 50 years from now. I emphasize 50 years, because within the next 50 years we citizens of the world shall either have figured out how to live in a world of finite resources with roughly equal lifestyles around the world, or we shall have failed by then to achieve a stable egali-tarian world and will no longer be able to achieve one. In the first of those two cases, the future of human society will provide a lifestyle much better than current Korean and American lifestyles 100 and 200 years from now. In the second of those two cases, 100 and 200 years from now there will either be no longer any people left alive on Earth, or those still alive will be living under Stone Age lifestyles similar to those that my New Guinea friends practiced until recently. The choices that humans and their governments are making today will determine which of those two outcomes we get 50 years from now. My own guess is that I rate the chances of the happy first outcome at 51%, and the chances of the unhappy second outcome at 49%.

Prof. Harari: I too hope that we could create a stable egalitarian world, but I would rate the chances of achieving it at somewhat less than 51%. Over the last 100,000 years humans have proved that they can do almost anything - except achieve stabi-lity. Change is the single great constant of history. And the pace of change is only ac-celerating. Humankind might still surprise us, of course, and attain stability by 2065. Anything is possible. But it isn’t very likely. If we have a future at all beyond 2065, it will probably be based on learning to adapt to chaos.


3. There are lots of views that the robots will have an enormous influence on the future of human society. What influence do you think the robots including artificial intelligence will have on humanity?

Prof. Harari: We need to differentiate between robots and artificial intelligence (AI). Robots are not very important in themselves. They are just a shell. The crucial thing is the intelligence controlling the robots, which may control many other devices as well. We are now developing AI that outperforms humans in more and more tasks, from driving cars to diagnosing diseases. As a result, experts estimate that within 20-30 years, up to 50% of all the jobs in advanced economies will be taken by AI.

Many new kinds of jobs will probably appear, but that won‘t necessarily solve the problem. Humans have basically just two types of skills - physical skills and cognitive skills - and if computers and robots outperform us in both, they might outperform us in the new jobs just like in the old ones. So what will be the use of humans in such a world? What will we do with billions of economically useless humans? We don’t know. We don‘t have any economic model for such a situation. This may well be the greatest economic and political question of the twenty-first century.

Dr. Diamond: Robots and artificial intelligence will affect practical aspects of human life, just as they have for the last 60,000 years, but with increasingly rapid change. Just consider:we have had telephones and automobiles for a little more than a centu- ry, commercial television for only about 70 years, and e-mail for only a few decades. Robots and artificial intelligence will cause changes, just as telephones and cars and television and e-mail that already caused changes. But, despite telephones and cars and television and e-mail, people still face the same basic human concerns: how to bring up our children, how to deal with old age, how to resolve disputes, how to stay healthy, how to assess dangers, and other such concerns. We already faced those concerns for tens of thousands of years before we had telephones and cars, and we shall continue to have those concerns after we have more robots and artificial intelligence.

Prof. Harari: Many of the basic concerns facing humanity will indeed remain with us, such as how to bring up our children, how to deal with old age, how to resolve dis-putes, and how to stay healthy. For in truth, these concerns are not tens of thousands of years old - they are tens of millions of years old. We share them with all other mammals, and with many other animals too. As long as humans retain their present-day bodies and minds, this will not change.

AI is nevertheless different from telephones and cars, because unlike them, it has the power to redesign our bodies and minds, or to replace us altogether. If AI replaces humans as the dominant force on the planet, then for the first time in many millions of years earth will be dominated by beings who have no children, who do not grow old, and who don’t need emotions in order to resolve disputes.



4. In terms of the development of bio-health care technology, what influence do you think life extension and organ transplant will have on the change and form of human societies?

Prof. Harari: In the coming decades, we may well see new technologies that could radically extend human lifespans. This will have enormous influence on human society. I‘ll give just a few random examples.

Since people will live much longer in a world undergoing ever more rapid upheavals, they will have to reinvent themselves again and again. By the time you are 50, what-ever you learned as a teenager would be completely irrelevant, but the new know-ledge acquired in your fifties will again become obsolete by the time you are 80 or 100. This may result in enormous levels of stress. Longevity itself may become an additional source of stress. The longer you expect to live - the fewer risks you would be willing to take. People will become ever more obsessed with health and security.

Family structure,marriages and child-parent relationships would also be transformed. Today, people still expect to be married ’till death us do part‘, and much of life revol-ves around having and raising children. Now try to imagine a person with a lifespan of 150 years. Getting married at forty, she still has 110 years to go. Will it be realistic to expect her marriage to last 110 years? Even Catholic fundamentalists might baulk at that. So the current trend of serial marriages is likely to intensify. Bearing two child-ren in her forties, by the time she is 120,the years she spent raising them are a distant memory - and a rather minor episode in her life. It’s hard to tell what kind of new parent-child relationship might develop under such conditions.

At the same time, since people will not retire at 65, they will not make way for the new generation with its novel ideas and aspirations. The physicist Max Planck famously said that science advances one funeral at a time. He meant that only when one gene-ration passes away do new theories have a chance to root out old ones. This is true not only of science. Think for a moment about the political sphere. Would you mind having Putin stick around for another ninety years? On second thoughts, if people lived to 150, then in 2016 Stalin would still be ruling in Moscow, going strong at 138, and Mao would be a middle-aged 123-year-old.


One last point to bear in mind is that the new life-extending treatments might be ex-pensive, and will not be freely available for all 8 billion humans. Hence human socie- ty in the 21st century may be the most unequal in history. For the first time in history, there might appear real biological gaps between classes and countries. Throughout history,the rich and powerful always argued that they were superior to everyone else. That they were more clever, more courageous, more creative, more moral than every-one else. This was not true. As far as we know,there were no real differences in abili- ties between,say, Hindu Brahmans and Untouchables. However,in the coming gene- rations humankind might split into biological castes, with upper-class humans trans- formed into godlike beings. These upper-class humans may really be more clever, more courageous, and more creative than everybody else.


Dr. Diamond:Life extension and modern medicine, including organ transplants, have already caused an increase in the proportion and longevity of old people, and a de-crease in the proportion of young people. Already, your neighbor Japan has the se-cond highest life extension in the world, and the lowest birth rate. If those trends are extrapolated lineally, one calculates that there won‘t be any more babies born in Ja-pan after 17 years from now! Obviously, that won’t be the outcome, and the extrapo-lation won‘t be linear, but - it remains clear that fewer and fewer young people will be supporting more and more older people.

5. There are worries that money could decide the quality of human life in the future with the development of robots, bio-health, and especially artificial intelligence. Is it possible to expect bright future for our society?


Prof. Harari: The future is not deterministic. We face many dangers, but when faced by collective danger, humankind can rise to the challenge. The most obvious and op-timistic model is our reaction to the threat of nuclear war, and our success in curbing international violence over the last few decades. In the 1950s and 1960s, many people believed that a nuclear holocaust was inevitable. But in the following decades, humankind not only managed to avoid nuclear war, but also reduced international violence to its lowest level ever.

There are still wars in some parts of the world - I come from the Middle East,so I know that very well. But for the first time in history, large parts of the world are completely free from war. In ancient agricultural societies, about 15% of all deaths were caused by human violence. Today, in the world as a whole, less than 1.5% of deaths are caused by human violence. In fact, the number of suicides is today higher than the number of violent deaths! You have a greater chance of killing yourself than of being killed by some enemy soldier, criminal or terrorist. People today are terrified of terro-rism.But in fact,for every human killed by terrorism,a thousand die of eating too much. For the average American, McDonalds poses a much greater threat than Al Qaeda.

Now we are facing new threats, such as global warming and the rise of AI. The dan-ger is very big, but nothing is determined. Humankind can still rise to the challenge.


Dr. Diamond:Of course money will affect the quality of human life in the future with the development of robots and bio-health, just as money has affected the quality of human life ever since money was invented about 3,000 years ago! Is it possible to expect a bright future of our society? Yes, but only if we make better choices than we are making now.

6. Do you think that East Asia including Korea is able to be the leader of human society?


Prof. Harari: We are in an analogous situation to the nineteenth century. Back then, the world underwent the Industrial Revolution. This revolution was led by very few countries such as Britain, the USA and Japan. These few countries conquered the world. Most other countries failed to understand what was happening, and they there-fore missed the train of progress, and were occupied and exploited by the industrial nations.

In the early twenty-first century the train of progress is again pulling out of the station. Whereas in the nineteenth century industrialization was fueled by steam power, che-mistry and electricity, now progress is fueled mostly by biotechnology and computer science. And whereas nineteenth-century industry produced mainly food, textiles, ve-hicles and weapons, the new biotech and cybernetic industries will produce bodies, brains and minds.The gap between those who will know how to engineer bodies and brains and those who will not, will be far bigger than the gap between nineteenth-century Britain and India. Those who will lead the next revolution will acquire divine abilities of creation and destruction, while those left behind might face extinction.

Which nations and areas are likely to lead the revolution? At present it is led by East Asia and the North Atlantic region. Other areas, such as Africa, the Middle East and South America are being left behind. This may change, of course. But I think that all countries in the world face today an existential question: will they be part of the next revolution, or will they be left behind?


Dr. Diamond: Let’s distinguish between “able to be THE leader” and “able to be A leader”. For the last century, the leaders of human society have been East Asia, Europe, and North America, with North America currently the most powerful. Two hundred years ago, the leaders were East Asia and Europe, with Europe the most powerful. Five thousand years ago, the leader was Southwest Asia (the so-called Fertile Crescent), with East Asia and Europe and North America still backwaters.

I expect that the world leaders will continue to be East Asia,Europe,and North Ameri-ca for the foreseeable future, at least for the next several decades. For each of these areas, it‘s easy to point out advantages, and to point out disadvantages of the other areas. But all three areas will continue to dominate the rest of the world because of unchanging facts of geography. Which of those regions dominates the other two will depend upon changing facts of human society.


https://youtu.be/1287qRqw-Ts

Seoul Economic Daily will broadcast the Seoul Forum live in real time,especially Keynote Speech by Professor Jared Diamond, A Conversation with Professor Jared Diamond.

You can see the specific information on the official website

(▶http://seoulforum.kr/eng) And you can watch the live-cast through our facebook page :


Follow and watch! we‘ll notice the broadcast schedule by Push-Up message!



***

Näin huijari kääntää asiat ylösalaisin...

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/20/opinion/sunday/global-cabal-conspiracy-theories.html

When the World Seems Like One Big Conspiracy

Understanding the structure of global cabal theories can shed light on their allure — and their inherent falsehood.

By

Mr. Harari is a historian and author.

  • Nov. 20, 2020



 

Credit...Max Löffler

Conspiracy theories come in all shapes and sizes, but perhaps the most common form is the global cabal theory. A recent survey of 26,000 people in 25 countries asked respondents whether they believe there is “a single group of people who secretly control events and rule the world together.”

Thirty-seven percent of Americans replied that this is “definitely or probably true.” So did 45 percent of Italians, 55 percent of Spaniards and 78 percent of Nigerians.

Conspiracy theories, of course, weren’t invented by QAnon; they’ve been around for thousands of years. Some of them have even had a huge impact on history. Take Nazism, for example. We normally don’t think about Nazism as a conspiracy theory. Since it managed to take over an entire country and launch World War II, we usually consider Nazism an “ideology,” albeit an evil one.

But at its heart, Nazism was a global cabal theory based on this anti-Semitic lie: “A cabal of Jewish financiers secretly dominates the world and are plotting to destroy the Aryan race. They engineered the Bolshevik Revolution, run Western democra-cies, and control the media and the banks. Only Hitler has managed to see through all their nefarious tricks — and only he can stop them and save humanity.”


Understanding the common structure of such global cabal theories can explain both their attractiveness — and their inherent falsehood.

The Structure

Global cabal theories argue that underneath the myriad events we see on the surface of the world lurks a single sinister group.The identity of this group may change: Some believe the world is secretly ruled by Freemasons, witches or Satanists; others think it’s aliens, reptilian lizard people or sundry other cliques.


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Create an account or log in

But the basic structure remains the same: The group controls almost everything that happens, while simultaneously concealing this control.

Global cabal theories take particular delight in uniting opposites. Thus the Nazi con-spiracy theory said that on the surface,communism and capitalism look like irreconci- lable enemies,right? Wrong! That’s exactly what the Jewish cabal wants you to think! And you might think that the Bush family and the Clinton family are sworn rivals, but they’re just putting on a show — behind closed doors, they all go to the same Tupperware parties.

From these premises, a working theory of the world emerges. Events in the news are a cunningly designed smoke screen aimed at deceiving us, and the famous leaders that distract our attention are mere puppets in the hands of the real rulers.


The Lure

Global cabal theories are able to attract large followings in part because they offer a single, straightforward explanation to countless complicated processes. Our lives are repeatedly rocked by wars, revolutions, crises and pandemics. But if I believe some kind of global cabal theory, I enjoy the comforting feeling that I do understand everything.


The Interpreter: Original insights, commentary and discussions on the major news stories of the week.

The war in Syria? I don’t need to study Middle Eastern history to comprehend what’s happening there. It’s part of the big conspiracy. The development of 5G technology? I don’t need to do any research on the physics of radio waves. It’s the conspiracy. The Covid-19 pandemic? It has nothing to do with ecosystems, bats and viruses. It’s obviously part of the conspiracy.

The skeleton key of global cabal theory unlocks all the world’s mysteries and offers me entree into an exclusive circle - the group of people who understand. It makes me smarter and wiser than the average person and even elevates me above the intellec-tual elite and the ruling class: professors, journalists, politicians. I see what they overlook - or what they try to conceal.

The Flaw

Global cabal theories suffer from the same basic flaw: They assume that history is very simple. The key premise of global cabal theories is that it is relatively easy to manipulate the world. A small group of people can understand, predict and control everything, from wars to technological revolutions to pandemics.

Particularly remarkable is this group’s ability to see 10 moves ahead on the global board game. When they release a virus somewhere, they can predict not only how it will spread through the world, but also how it will affect the global economy a year later. When they unleash a political revolution, they can control its course. When they start a war, they know how it will end.

20harari-socialpromo-jumbo.jpg

But of course, the world is much more complicated. Consider the American invasion of Iraq, for example. In 2003, the world’s sole superpower invaded a medium-size Middle Eastern country, claiming it wanted to eliminate the country’s weapons of mass destruction and end Saddam Hussein’s regime. Some suspected that it also wouldn’t have minded the chance to gain hegemony over the region and dominate the vital Iraqi oil fields. In pursuit of its goals, the United States deployed the best army in the world and spent trillions of dollars.

Fast forward a few years, and what were the results of this tremendous effort? A complete debacle. There were no weapons of mass destruction, and the country was plunged into chaos. The big winner of the war was actually Iran, which became the dominant power in the region.

So should we conclude that George W.Bush and Donald Rumsfeld were actually un- dercover Iranian moles, executing a devilishly clever Iranian plot? Not at all. Instead, the conclusion is that it is incredibly difficult to predict and control human affairs.

You don’t need to invade a Middle Eastern country to learn this lesson. Whether you’ve served on a school board or local council, or merely tried to organize a sur-prise birthday party for your mom, you probably know how difficult it is to control hu-mans. You make a plan, and it backfires. You try to keep something a secret, and the next day everybody is talking about it. You conspire with a trusted friend, and at the crucial moment he stabs you in the back.

Global cabal theories ask us to believe that while it is very difficult to predict and con-trol the actions of 1,000 or even 100 humans, it is surprisingly easy to puppet master nearly eight billion.

The Reality

There are, of course, many real conspiracies in the world. Individuals, corporations, organizations, churches, factions and governments are constantly hatching and pur-suing various plots. But that is precisely what makes it so hard to predict and control the world in its entirety.

In the 1930s, the Soviet Union really was conspiring to ignite communist revolutions throughout the world; capitalist banks were employing all kinds of dodgy strategies; the Roosevelt administration was planning to re-engineer American society in the New Deal; and the Zionist movement pursued its plan to establish a homeland in Pa- lestine. But these and countless other plans often collided, and there wasn’t a single group of people running the whole show.

Today, too,you are probably the target of many conspiracies.Your co-workers may be plotting to turn the boss against you.A big pharmaceutical corporation may be bribing your doctor to give you harmful opioids. Another big corporation may be pressuring politicians to block environmental regulations and allow it to pollute the air you breathe. Some tech giant may be busy hacking your private data. A political party may be gerrymandering election districts in your state. A foreign government may be trying to foment extremism in your country. These could all be real conspiracies, but they are not part of a single global plot.


Sometimes a corporation, a political party or a dictatorship does manage to gather a significant part of all the world’s power into its hands.But when such a thing happens, it’s almost impossible to keep it hush-hush. With great power comes great publicity.

Indeed, in many cases great publicity is a prerequisite for gaining great power. Lenin, for example, would never have won power in Russia by avoiding the public gaze. And Stalin at first was much fonder of scheming behind closed doors, but by the time he monopolized power in the Soviet Union, his portrait was hanging in every office, school and home from the Baltic to the Pacific. Stalin’s power depended on this per-sonality cult. The idea that Lenin and Stalin were just a front for the real behind-the-scenes rulers contradicts all historical evidence.

Realizing that no single cabal can secretly control the entire world is not just accurate — it is also empowering. It means that you can identify the competing factions in our world, and ally yourself with some groups against others. That’s what real politics is all about.

Yuval Noah Harari is a historian and the author of “Sapiens: A Graphic History.”

Conspiracy theories weren’t invented by QAnon; they’ve been around for thousands of years.Credit...Stephen Maturen/Getty Images


tiistai, 17. marraskuu 2020

On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory...

https://www.academia.edu/1959273/On_Germanic_Saami_contacts_and_Saami_prehistory?email_work_card=view-paper

SUSA/JSFOu 91, 2006
Ante AIKIO (Oulu)

Screenshot_2020-11-17%20On%20Germanic-Sa


1. Introduction


Systematic research on Scandinavian loanwords in Saami began well over acentury ago (e.g. Thomsen 1869; Qvigstad 1893; Wiklund 1896). However, the concept of earlier Germanic borrowings in Saami is newer. In the 1960s it wasstill commonly maintained that few, if any, independent Indo-European loan-words had been directly adopted into Pre-Saami (e.g. Sköld 1961 passim). Of course, ever since the loanword studies by Thomsen (1869, 1890) it had beenknown that a few older Indo-European loan items, such as North Saami ruovdi  ‘iron’ (< Germanic) and luossa ‘salmon’ (< Baltic), were present in Saami. Butas such words were shared with Finnic whose lexicon showed a significantlystronger Indo-European impact, it was maintained that these words had beenmediated to Saami by Finnic. Thus, there seemed to be little evidence of direct   contacts  between     Pre-Saami  and  the   early     Germanic      and   Baltic tribes. During recent decades it has become clear that this classical picture had been influenced by the ways in which etymological research was conducted. With the exception of studies of Scandinavian loanwords which have a long and fruitful research history, there has been a tradition of treating Saami etymologyas a sort of extension of the etymological study of Finnish vocabulary; untilrecent times few researchers had taken the etymologisation of Saami words asan aim in itself. Recently this tradition has been changing, though. For instance, the thorough studies of Germanic loanwords conducted by Jorma Koivulehtohave revealed that there is much more to the contact history of Saami and Germanic  than  was  previously  thought. The purposes of this paper are to examine the strata of old Germanic bor-rowings in Saami and to discuss the prehistory and formation of the Saami language branch in the light of what is known of its contacts with Germanic as well as other language groups. The next section summarises the present knowledgeof the stratification of Germanic borrowings in Saami. In the third section 27 Saami words are etymologised as early Germanic loans. The concluding section discusses the main lines of Saami ethnic history on the basis of the results of the present study as well as other recent linguistic research.
 
Aikio 10


2. The stratification of Germanic loanwords in Saami


Jorma Koivulehto has demonstrated in his studies that there are two distinct strata of Germanic loanwords in Saami which precede the extensive stratum of Proto-Scandinavian loans, the existence of which has already for long beenrecognised. Even these older borrowings seem to have been adopted largely independent of Finnic, as most of them do not have Finnic cognates. Koivulehto’s stratification of the Germanic loan items in Saami is summarised below, asit provides the background for the study in the next section; see e.g. Koivulehto (2002)  and  the   references mentioned there for further material.The oldest stratum of Germanic loanwords has participated in all the knownProto-Saami vowel changes, including the shift *a > *uo. 2
These loanwords are often, but not always, shared with Finnic. In this layer of borrowings Saami *k  occurs in the place of Germanic *h.
The words were borrowed either before the Germanic sound shift (i.e. before Indo-European *k  > PGerm *h) or at an in-termediate phase when the Germanic sound was still pronounced as a velar fricative  (*x).  Examples  of  borrowings  in  this  layer include:
SaaN guos'si ‘guest’ < PS *kuossē  < PreS *kansa (~ Finn. kansa ‘people, crowd’) < PGerm *hansō- (> Old English hōs crowd, host’, Old HighGerman hansa id.) 3
(LÄGLOS s.v. kansa)
SaaN gierdat  ‘to endure’ < PS *kiertë- < PreS *kärti- (~ Finn. kärsiä  ‘tosuffer; to endure’) < PGerm *hardja- (> Swedish härda ‘to harden, to endure’)    (LÄGLOS  s.v. kär
SaaSk  kuârgg ‘range of rocks, reef’, SaaL guorgoj ‘rocky shore’ < PS* kuorkō(j) < PreS *karko(j) < PGerm *hargu- (> Old Norse horgr  ‘heap of rocks;  sacrificial   site’) (LÄGLOS  s.v. karkea)  The second  stratum  of  Germanic  loanwords has  also  participated in many  Proto-Saami vowel changes, such as *a > *uo, but shows Ø as the substitute for Germanic *h. These loanwords are not shared with Finnic – there are no loanwordsin Finnic showing a loss of foreign h. These borrowings were thus adopted at astage when Saami and Finnic were already distinct languages spoken in twomutually exclusive speech communities, but these languages still closely re-sembled each other, as at least most of the complex Proto-Saami vowel shiftshad not yet taken place. Examples of borrowings in this layer include: SaaN vuoma ~ vuopman ‘a kind of hunting fence’ < PS *vuomën < PreS* amin < PGerm *hamen- (> Old High German hamo ‘hunting net; net in aweir’)   (Koivulehto 2002:  589)
SaaN vuoksa ‘depth of a fishing net’ < PS *vuopsë < PreS *api/as < NwGerm *hāba-z  (< PGerm *hēba-z ) (> Old Norse háfr  ‘pocket net, hoopnet’)  (Koivulehto 1999b: 364–365; 2002: 589)
SaaN vuos'su ‘bellows’ < PS *vuosëjō < PreS *asijo < PGerm *hasja- (>Icelandic hes
‘skin pouch’)   (Koivulehto 1999a: 365–367)


On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 11


In the case of individual words it is often impossible to distinguish between these two layers of borrowings. Indeed, there are quite a few Germanic borrowings which have undergone the Saami vowel shift *a > uo and hence must havebeen adopted during one of these two early periods, but there are no criteria formore exact dating. But, even though the majority of the old Germanic loan-words in Saami are phonologically ambiguous so that their adoption cannot bewith any certainty assigned to either the first or the second phase of borrowing,a principal distinction between these two strata must be assumed in order toexplain the two reflexes of Germanic *h-.

The following cases are ambiguous inrespect to their stratification:


SaaN buoidi ‘fat’ < PS *puojtē < PreS *pajta < PGerm *faita- (> Old Norse feitr ‘fat’) (Koivulehto 1976: 260)
SaaL buollda ‘hillside, mountain side’ (~ Finn. dial. palsi ‘hard layer of soilor clay, e.g. in the bottom of a lake’) < PS *puoltë < PreS *palti < PGerm* falþa- (> Engl. fold)  (Koivulehto 1976: 254–257)
SaaL guobas ‘witch’ (~ Finn. kave ‘creature; mythological being; girl, maiden (myth.)’) < PS *kuopës < PreS *kapis < PGerm *skapa- (> Old English ge-sceap ‘creature, creation’). (LÄGLOS s.v. kave)
SaaN guolla ‘testicle’ < PS *kuolë  < PreS *kali < PGerm *skallV- (> OldEngl. sceallan ‘testicles’, Old Frisian skall ‘testicle’). PS *-l- in the place of foreign *-ll- is predictable in an early loan, as geminate sonorants wereoriginally not permitted in Finno-Ugric. (The etymology derives from J .Koivulehto,  p.c.)
SaaL luogge ‘rectum’ (~ Finn. lank  ‘thread’) < PS *luoŋkē < PreS *laŋka <PGerm *langan- (> Icelandic langi ‘rectum of a bovine’) (LÄGLOS s.v. lanka)
SaaN luoikat ‘to lend’ < PS *luojkkë- < PreS *lajkki- < PGerm *laigwē-/ *laigweje- (> Old Norse leiga ~ leigja ‘to hire’) (Koivulehto 2002: 588–589)
SaaN luoska (obsol.) ‘decorative seam or trimming on the edge of a Saamiman’s coat’ < PS *luoskë < PreS *lask < PGerm *laskV- (> Middle LowGerman
lasch ‘piece (of textile, leather, metal, etc.) with a sharp end; gussetin woman’s coat’; cf. Norwegian lask ‘invisible or decorative seam (onleather); cloth gusset’, which is a Low German loan) (Koivulehto 1976:262–263) 4
 
SaaN ruoksi ‘udder’ (~ Finn. rauhanen ‘gland’) < PS *ruovsē  < PreS *rawsa < * rawša < PGerm *hrauza- (> Norwegian røyr  ‘groin’) (cf. SSA s.v. rauhanen)
 
 
Aikio 12 SaaN ruovda ‘edge (of a boat, bed frame, shoe sole, etc.)’ < PS *ruomtë < PreS *ramti < Pre-Germ *ramdō- (> PGerm *randō- > Old Norse rond  ‘edge’)  (Koivulehto 2002: 589)
SaaN ruovdi ‘iron’ (~ Finn. rauta id.) < PS *ruovtē < PreS *rawta < PGerm *raudan- (> Old Norse rauði ‘bog iron ore’) (SSA s.v. rauta)
SaaN suovdi ‘gill; mouth, gullet’ (~ Finn. hauta ‘pit; grave’) < PS *suovδē  < PreS *sawδa < *šawδa < PGerm *sauþa- (> Old English sēaþ ‘pit, hole; well,  pool’)  (Koivulehto 1976: 35 – 37)
SaaN suovri ‘filthy person’ < PS *suovr ē < PreS *sawra < PGerm *saura- (> Old Norse
saurr ‘filth’) (the etymology was presented by J. Koivulehto, p.c.)
SaaN vuohčču ‘narrow, wet bog’ < PS *vuoččō < PreS *waććo < NwGerm *wātjō- (> Swedish dial. vät ‘boggy place which gathers water in the spring and autumn’) (Koivulehto 2002: 589)
SaaN vuohppi ‘small, narrow bay’ (~ Finn. apaja ‘fishing ground’) < PS* vuopējē PreS *apaja< PGerm *aban- (> Swedish dial. ave ‘small andnarrow bay of a lake’) or *abjōn- (> Old Norse efja ‘bay in a river; mire’) (LÄGLOS s.v. apaja)
SaaL vuolldo ‘the strongest reindeer bull in the herd’ < PS *vuoltō < PreS* walto < PGerm *waldan- (> Old Norse valdi ‘ruler (poetic)’) (Sammallahti 1984: 144; cf. Sköld 1961: 96)
SaaN vuorbi ‘lot; destiny’ (~ Finn. arpa ‘lot’) < PS *vuorpē < PreS *arpa <PGerm *arba- (> Old Norse arfr  ‘inheritance’)  (LÄGLOS  s.v. arpa)
SaaN vuordit  ‘to wait’ (? ~ Finn. vartoa, varrota id.) < PS *vuortē- < PreS* warta- < PGerm *wardō- (> Old Norse varða ‘to guard, watch over’) or *wardē- (> German
warten ‘to wait’) (SSA s.v. varrota)
SaaN vuordnut ‘to swear’ (~ Finn. vanno- ‘to swear’) < PS *vuornō- < PreS *watno- < PGerm *wahwna- (> German erwähnen ‘to mention’); there areparallels for the substitution *-Kn- > *-tn- (Koivulehto 1999b: 121)
SaaN vuotta ‘shoelace (laced around the thigh)’ (? ~ Finn vanne ‘hoop’) <PS *vuontëk < PreS *wantik < PGerm *wandu-z (> Old Norse vondr  ‘twig,  whip’)  (Koivulehto 1976: 257–258)
SaaN vuovdi ‘forest’ < PS *vuovtē < PreS *awta < PGerm *auþa- (> OldNorse auðr
‘uninhabited, desert’, German öde id.; cf. Old Norse eyði-mork ‘desolate forest land’, German
 Ein-öde ‘wilderness, wilds’) (the etymologyderives from P. Sammallahti, p.c.). As for the semantics, cf. SaaN meahcci ‘wilderness, wilds, uninhabited territory’ <  Finn. metsä ‘forest’.
 
On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 13


It must be noted that even the presence of a regular Finnic cognate does notguarantee that the borrowing belongs to the oldest stratum because it is possiblethat the words are quasi-cognates which show regular sound correspondenceeven though they do not go back to the common proto-language. It is likely thatmany words were borrowed between Pre-Finnic and Pre-Saami at a date whenthese languages were still phonologically relatively close to each other, just ase.g. many Scandinavian loanwords have recently diffused between the variousSaami languages, conforming to regular correspondences as they were trans-ferred between the already diverged idioms (see e.g. Sammallahti 1984: 145). Borrowings between relatively closely related languages frequently becomeconformed to the sound correspondences that are observed in cognate vocabu-lary, a process which can be called ‘etymological nativisation’ (see Aikio in press a).Moreover, in some cases Finnic and Saami may have independently bor-rowed the same Germanic word. This is probably the case with SaaN vuordit ‘towait’ and Finnish vartoa id.: Saami adopted the word from Proto-Germanic, whereas the Finnish item is likely to have been a later Proto-Scandinavian loan. Separate borrowing is supported by the irregular correspondence of the secondsyllable vowels (PS *ē ~ Finn. o), as well as the narrow distribution of the Fin-nish word: vartoa is only attested in the western dialects of Finnish, and is ab-sent in all other Finnic languages. 5


Another likely case of separate borrowing isSaaN vuotta ‘shoelace’ (<  *want-ik) and Finn. vanne ‘hoop’ (< *want-iš), wherethe suffixal elements differ; in this case separate adoption has been argued also by Koivulehto (1976). It appears that even the oldest Germanic loanwords were adopted into Pre-Finnic and Pre-Saami largely independently of each other (see also  Koivulehto 1988). In contrast to the two strata discussed above, the later stratum of Proto-Scandinavian loanwords is markedly different in phonological terms; and it isalso lexically more extensive, containing several hundred borrowings. Proto-Scandinavian borrowings can usually be easily distinguished from earlier loan-words on the basis of their vowel reflexes, because they were adopted after theseries of sound changes that transformed the Pre-Saami vowel system into theProto-Saami one – this process left none of the vowels in the system unaltered,and hence it could be called ‘the great Saami vowel shift’ (I owe the term toJanne Saarikivi). PScand *a and *ā are reflected as PS *ā (> SaaN á) as opposed to the PS *uo (< PreS *a) in earlier loans. Likewise, PScand *e was rendered with PS *ie (> SaaN ie), whereas in older Germanic borrowings one finds PS *ë or *ea (both < PreS *e    under   different  conditions). Consonant substitution patterns also differ from the earlier periods of borrowing. It appears that one must postulate an early dialectal division withinProto-Saami on the basis of how certain Proto-Scandinavian consonants weretreated. does not include the


Aikio 14


 In North-western Saami (henceforth NwS), which predecessors of Skolt and Kola Saami, the foreign consonants /h/ and /f / becameestablished at quite an early date. 6
Thus, in Proto-Scandinavian loanwords *f- is reflected as f- in NwS, but as  v- in Skolt and Kola Saami – but never as p incontrast to earlier borrowings. Foreign *h-, too, shows a dual treatment: in NwSit was inconsistently either dropped or retained, but in Skolt and Kola Saamialways dropped. Medial *-h- was varyingly either replaced with -k- or -f-or assimilated to a preceding sonorant. Also some initial consonant clusters, especially sk-, were retained in Proto-Scandinavian loanwords in NwS, but simpli-fied in the predecessor of the more eastern Saami idioms. A further consonantalcriterion is that loanwords in the Proto-Scandinavian period frequently show the(hitherto unexplained) sound substitution PScand *-j- > Saami *-č-, which isnot attested in earlier borrowings.

The following examples serve to illustrate the phonological ch

aracteristics of  Proto-Scandinavian  loanwords  in  comparison  to the two  earlier  strata:
SaaN áhpi ‘high sea, open sea’ < PS *āpē < PScand *haba- (> Old Norse haf ‘sea’)
SaaN ávža ‘bird-cherry’ < PS *āvčë  < PScand *hagja- (> Old Norse heggr ‘bird-cherry’)
SaaN biergu ‘meat’ < PS *pierkō< PScand *bergō-(> Old Norse bjorg ‘aid,  rescue, food’)
SaaN  fárru ‘trip; party, travelling company’ < NwS  *fārō < PScand *farō- (> Old Norse for ‘journey, journeying’); cf. SaaSk väärr ‘trip’ < *vārō, with initial v-
SaaN fiel'lu ‘board’ < NwS *fiellō < PScand *felhō- (> Old Norse fjol ‘board’)
SaaN háittis ‘very hot (of stove)’ < NwS *hājttēs < PScand *haita-z  (> Old Norse heitr ‘hot’)
SaaN lávkkis ‘flea’ < PS *lāvkkēs < PScand *flauha- (> Old Norse fló ‘flea’); cf. SaaP laaffies ‘flea’ (< NwS *lāffēs), with a different sound sub-stitution!
SaaN márfi ‘sausage’ < NwS *mārfē  < PScand *marhwa- (> Old Norse morr
‘fat   in  the  intestines’)
SaaN miel'li ‘steep, sandy bank on the shore of a river or lake’ < PS *miellē < PScand *melha- (> Old Norse melr ‘heap of sand’)
SaaN skálžu ‘seashell’ < NwS *skālčō < PScand *skaljō- (> Old Norse skel ‘shell, crust’); cf. SaaK  kā¬v z ‘seashell’(< *kālčō), with simplification of the initial     cluster

On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 15

The adoption of Proto-Scandinavian loanwords was contemporaneous with the disintegration of Proto-Saami, as revealed by the dialectal differences in the patterns of phonological nativisation. This suggests that the loans were adoptedinto an already widely spread dialect continuum instead of a geographicallynarrow proto-language.As this study concentrates on the earliest periods of borrowing, Proto-Scandinavian loanwords will not be discussed below. The criteria set for theinclusion in the earlier strata of loans are phonological. A Germanic loanwordmust have already been adopted into Pre-Saami if it fulfils one of the following phonological criteria: 1) The word has participated in the vowel shift PreS *a > PS *uo. 2) It shows the reflex of the metaphonic change PreS *e(–i)> *i(–i) >PS *ë(–ë) or PreS *e(–ä) > *ä(–ä) > PS *ea (–ē). 3) It shows the sound substitution PGerm *f- > PS *p- or  PGerm  *h- (*x-) > PS *k- .In addition to these criteria also the lowering and velarisation of PreS *i to PS *ë is probably a valid criterion for early Germanic origin. This change isattested in e.g. SaaN lađas ‘joint’ < PS *lëδës < PreS *liδis < PGerm *liþu-z (>Old Norse liðr id.) and in an even earlier borrowing from the same word, SaaN lahttu ‘limb’ < PS *lëttō< PreS *litto (Koivulehto 2002). However, I have not discovered any new examples of Germanic loanwords displaying this vowel correspondence, so  it  is not  of  relevance  to  the  present  study.


3. New Germanic loan etymologies


In the etymological articles below the lexical material from Saami and Germanic is first presented, with references to the relevant etymological dictionar-ies. Only one or two members of each Saami cognate set are cited as examples. The intra-Saami distribution of each item is given in parentheses, together with a reference to Juhani Lehtiranta’s common Saami vocabulary (YSS) if the cognate  set  can  be  found  there. The  following dictionaries,  which have  been  used  as sources of Saami lexical data, are not separately referred to: Bergsland & Mattsson Magga 1993 (South Saami); Lagercrantz 1939 (South Saami, PiteSaami, Sea Saami); Schlachter 1958 (Ume Saami); Halász 1891 (Pite Saami); Grundström 1946–1954 (Lule Saami); Friis 1887, Nielsen 1979 and Sammallahti 1989 (North Saami); E. Itkonen 1986–1991 and Morottaja &Sammallahti 1993 (Inari Saami); Sammallahti & Mosnikoff 1988 (SkoltSaami); T. I. Itkonen 1958 (Skolt, Kildin and Ter Saami). The cited forms have been normalised according to the modern orthographic standards of the Saamilanguages, except   for  Kildin  Saami.

Aikio 16
3.1.
SaaN bahta ‘arse, behind’ (S–T; YSS 872) < PS *pëtë << (via labial dissimilation)  *potë < PreS *puti < PreGerm *putV- ‘arse; vagina’ > PGerm *fudV- > Old Norse fuð- ‘vagina’ (only attested in compounds), Icelandic fuð ‘vagina’, Middle HighGerman vut ‘vagina; arse’, English (dialectal) fud ‘buttocks; vagina’ (? < Nordic). Note also Germ Fotze ‘vagina’, which either shows expressivegemination (*futt-) or is an “s-Bildung”. (ÍO s.v. fuð; AEWb s.v. fuð-; Kluge s.v. Fotze) No etymology has been proposed for common Saami *pëtë ‘arse, behind’.However, the word very closely resembles PGerm  fudV- (< PreGerm * putV-) ‘arse; vagina’. The loan etymology is otherwise quite straightforward, but itrequires the postulation of a sporadic labial dissimilation in *o >> *ë after *p- in Proto-Saami. While the change is not regular, the Saami languages show astrong tendency towards this kind of dissimilatory development. Irregular variation between PS *o and *ë next to labial consonants is relatively common. In North Saami one finds dialectal oscillation in many words, cf. e.g. monni ~ manni ‘egg’, botnit ~ batnit  ‘to plait’, bohčit ~ bahčit  ‘to squeeze; to milk’ (SaaN-a- reflects PS *-ë-).


Illabialisation is also common in the other Saamilanguages; e.g. the three words above show only illabialised forms in Eastern Saami. The labial vowel is original in such cases, as demonstrated by extra-Saami cognates (cf. Finn. muna ‘egg’, punoa ‘to plait’, pusertaa ‘to squeeze, wring’ <  Proto-Uralic  *mun, *puna-, *puśa-). There are even other cases like PS *pëtë which uniformly show labial dis-similation in all Saami languages: cf. SaaN laksi ‘dew’ < PS *lëpsē  (the change *ps > ks is regular in SaaN) < Proto-Uralic *lupsa ‘dew’ (> Komi lïsva ‘dew’, Tundra Nenets yøbta id., etc.) and SaaN avvit ‘to leak (of boats)’ < PS *ëvē- < Proto-Uralic *uwa- ‘current; to flow’ (> Finnish vuo ‘current’, Mansi ow- ‘toflow’, etc.). Reflexes of the predictable regular forms *lopsē and *ovē- are not attested anywhere in Saami. A new example of this type can also be presented. One can connect SaaN bahkket ‘to cram, stuff; to force oneself into’, bahkat  ‘narrow, tight, taut’ and bahku ‘crowd’, which are derivatives of a PS root *pëkë-, with Finn. pukea ‘to dress, put on (clothes); to thread, slip into’ (the previous comparison to SaaN bohkat ‘to pierce’ is hardly feasible, cf. SSA s.v. pukea). Similar cases are also involved in SaaN savu: savvon- ‘smooth waters (in ariver)’ (< PS *sëvōn) ~ Finn. suvanto id. and SaaN lahppu ‘lichen on trees’ (<PS *lëppō) ~ Finn. luppo id. On distributional grounds these words are probably not cognate, though, but more likely borrowings between Saami and Finnish.

On distributional grounds these words are probablynot cognate, though, but more likely borrowings between Saami and Finnish.

n Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 17 

But even in this case one must postulate an original labial vowel o in Saami, because otherwise one could not account for the -u- in the Finnish forms: thesound substitution PS *ë > Finn. u (or vice versa) is not attested in loanwords.

As a further parallel, there is also another Germanic loanword which shows the same kind of labial dissimilation as the word *pëtë: cf. PS *këppë- ‘to jump, run, gallop’ << PreS *kuppi- < PGerm *huppō(ja)- ‘to jump, hop’ (see 3.10.).As there are numerous examples of sporadic labial dissimilation in Saami, it would not be too daring to assume that also SaaN bahta belongs to the group of words that have undergone this change. Moreover, there is in fact an obscured derivative in South Saami which has preserved a trace of the labial vowel: SaaS buhtehke ‘the outermost part of the rectum of a reindeer’ (< PS *potēkkē). Thus, a Pre-Saami form *puti can be postulated, which in turn can bestraightforwardly derived from Pre-Germanic *putV-. This borrowing is very likely older than the Germanic consonant shift, because borrowing from theProto-Germanic form *fudV- (where */d / = phonetically *[ð]) would have re-sulted in PS *pëδë > SaaN *bađđa; cf. e.g. SaaN lieđđim‘flower’ < PS *lieδē < PGerm *blēda- (> Old English blæd ‘flower, blossom; fruit’), which shows aspirant as the reflex of PGerm *-d- = *[ð]. But in fact many other Germanic borrowings may have been adopted before the consonant shift as well; in mostcases there is just no phonological criterion that would allow this to be determined.

Semantically the loan etymology is perfect, as ‘arse, behind’ has been reconstructed as the original meaning of the Germanic item as well (Kluge s.v. Fotze). Notably, the secondary meaning ‘vagina’ is also attested in the South Saami        cognate:     SaaS bahte ~ bïhte     ‘arse;   vagina’.

3.2.

SaaS boelnedh ‘to wilt (of grass, leaves; derogatorily of old people)’ (S–L)< PS *puolnë- < PreS *palni- < PGerm *falwnō- (> Old Norse f polna ‘to grow pale; to wilt’, Icelandic fölna id.),  a derivative of PGerm *falwa- (> Old Norse f p olr ‘pale’ ,     Icelandic fölur  id., German fahl id.). (ÍO s.v. fölur ; VA s.v. falme; AEWb s.v. f polr ;SEO  s.v. falna; Kluge    s.v. fahl) The Saami word *puolnë- ‘to wilt’, attested from South to Lule Saami, has not been etymologised. However, the word has a straightforward Germanic etymology. The PreS form of the word can be reconstructed as *palni-, which strikingly resembles  PGerm  *falwnō- ‘to grow pale, to wilt’. The sound substitutions are quite regular. The PGerm cluster *-lwn- was predictably simplified by leaving the *w without a substitute, as a three-consonant cluster would not have been possible in Uralic. Germanic *ō- stem verbs have been adapted as PreS *i-stems in other cases, too; see etymologies 3.8., 3.10., 3.18., 3.22., and 3.26.

Aikio 18

Also the meanings of the Saami and Germanic words match very well; note thatthe Lule Saami cognate buollnat is glossed ‘(ver)welken, gelb, fahl werden (von Gras und Laub)’ by Grundström (1946–1954: 756) and as ‘vissna, gulna; falna ´(om glöd)’  by  O.  Korhonen  (1979a) (emphasis added). Another Saami verb with an identical meaning can also be etymologised as a Germanic borrowing. SaaN goldnat  ‘to wilt (of grass, leaves etc.)’ (< PS *kolnë-; attested in SaaL–I) derives from PGerm or PScand *gulnō- (> Norwegian gulne ‘to turn yellow’). The word is a derivative of *gula- ‘yellow’ (> Norwegian gul). Note that in this case, too, a PS *ë -stem verb reflects a Germanic *ō-stem. This borrowing cannot be reliably dated; it could have been    adopted  either  from Proto-Germanic  or  later   from Proto-Scandinavian.

3.3

SaaS boernes ‘embryo’ (not attested elsewhere in Saami) < PS *puornës < PreS *parn < PGerm *barna- (> Old Norse, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish barn ‘child’)  (ÍO, AEWb,  SEO,  VA  s.v. barn) The correspondence between SaaS boernes ‘embryo’ (< PS *puornës) and PGerm *barna- ‘child’ is rather self-evident, and the word can be analysed as a borrowing that has undergone the vowel shift *a > PS *uo. The ending -es (< PS *-ës) is probably a native suffix. The meanings of the words are not identical, but the etymology is still quite transparent. Furthermore, the Germanic itemis originally a derivative of *ber- ‘to bear, carry’, and its original semantic motivation is thus ‘one that is or was born in the womb’. This brings the compari-son even closer to the South Saami word. The same Scandinavian word was also later borrowed into Saami a second time: cf. SaaN bárdni ‘son’, SaaS baernie ‘unmarried son’  (< PS *pārnē).

3.4.

SaaN boldni ‘hillock, mound; roundish, steep hilltop’, SaaS belnie ‘hillock, mound; heap’ (S–N) < PS *polnē < PreS *pulna, cognate with Finnic *pullV- (> Finnish pullea ‘plump, chubby’, pullistua ‘to distend, swell out, bulge out’, pullottaa ‘to bulge out, be bulging’, olla pullollaan ‘to becrammed, bulging, full of’, etc.; Estonian (dial.) pullas ‘chubby’, pullakas ‘large and fat’)< PreGerm *fulna- > PGerm *fulla- ‘full’ (> Icelandic fullur, English and Norwegian full, German voll, etc.) (ÍO s.v. fullur; SEO, VA s.v. full; Kluges. v. voll) 7

On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 19 
 

The equation of Saami boldni and Finnish pullea derives from P. Sammallahti (p.c.). In Saami one can assume the semantic development ‘bulging object, something that bulges out’ > ‘hillock’, ‘heap’. The semantics of the Finnic cognates come particularly close to Germanic *fulna- ‘full’; SSA even glosses Finn. pullea as ‘rund, voll, dick’ (emphasis added). It is also worth noting that the expression olla pullollaan ‘to be crammed, bulging, full of’ is practicallysynonymous with Finn. olla täynnään (< täysi ‘full’). Phonologically the etymology is flawless. On account of Saami *-ln- the borrowing must have taken place before the assimilation *-ln- > *-ll-    in    Germanic.

According to SSA (s.v.), Finn. pullea is a “descriptive” word, but this hardly provides a viable alternative to the loan etymology presented here.

First, ‘descriptivity’ (i.e. sound symbolism) as such does not yet explain the origin of a word, and second, in the case of pullea it is even hard to agree with the suggestion that the word is sound-symbolic (what are the putative symbolic con-ventions that this word displays?). SSA also mentions the similar SaaN words bullas, bul'lái ‘thick, bulging’, bul'lát ‘to bulge out’, bul'li ‘swelling; reindeer with thick udders’, and maintains that they might be “partially” of Finnish origin. What this means is unclear; all the cited items are obvious loans from Finnish.

3.5. SaaN (dial.) borsi ‘foaming rapids in a canyon’ (not attested in the other Saami languages) < PS *porsē < PreS *pursa or *purša (~ Finnish (dial.) purha ‘waterfall’, unless this is a parallel borrowing) < PGerm *fursa- ‘rapids; waterfall’ (> Old Norse fors ~ foss, Swedish fors, Norwegian and Icelandic foss id.)  (ÍO, VA  s.v. foss; AEWb, SEO  s.v. fors) The word borsi is only marginally attested in the North Saami dialects (Qvigstad 1944: 14), and it is not included in the main dictionaries. However, it must earlier have been in more frequent use at least in North Saami, as it occurs in river names in various areas. 8
 

The word is an obvious borrowing from PGerm* fursa- ‘rapids, waterfall’. Due to the sound substitution *f- > *p- the  borrowingmust have taken place quite early. A much newer borrowing from the sameGermanic word is SaaS fuersie ‘rapids’ (< *fuorsē); this must have been adopted either  from  Old Norse fors  or  from  an even  later Nordic  language. It is possible that SaaN borsi has a cognate in Finnish, cf. dialectal Finnish purha  ‘waterfall’  (<  PreF  *purša). These words were compared (with a question mark) in SKES (s.v. purha), but this phonologically regular comparison has for some reason been left unmentioned in SSA (s.v.), even though the Saami verb boršut ‘to foam (e.g. of rapids, waterfall)’ is mentioned; the latter word is apparently a separate borrowing from the same Germanic word family, see 3.6.

 

Aikio 20 

 

 

However, Finnish purha might also be a separate borrowing from Germanic. Regardless of which is the case, the Finnish item must also have been borrowedquite early, as it shows the development *š > h. The Finnic item was added to this  etymology by J.  Koivulehto (p.c.).

3.6.

SaaN boršut ‘to foam (e.g. of rapids, waterfall), to bubble, seethe (of boiling water)’ (S–K; YSS 959) < PS *poršō- < PreS *puršo- (with the secondary PreS *š, which emerged only after primary Proto-Uralic *š had shiftedto PreS *s at an early stage; see Sammallahti 1998: 190) < PGerm *fursja- (> Old Norse fyrsa ‘to foam (of a waterfall)’, Icelandic fyssa ‘to foam (of stream, rapids, etc.’), a derivative of PGerm *fursa- ‘waterfall, rapids’ (ÍO  s.v. fyssa; AEWb s.v. fyrsa); cf. 3.5.The word boršut contains the secondary Proto-Saami sibilant *š, which is distinct from both Proto-Uralic *š (> PS *s) and *ś (> PS *č). As the secondary *š does not occur in shared Uralic vocabulary, the word boršut must be an innovation adopted during the separate development of Saami. Due to the marked cluster -rš- the word has a somewhat sound-symbolic (“descriptive”) colour, but this  does not hinder the loan etymology. Indeed, PS *poršō- can be straightforwardly analysed as a borrowing. Asuitable original is provided by the Germanic verb *fursja-, a derivative of *fursa- ‘rapids, waterfall’. The latter is reflected in another loanword, SaaN borsi ‘foaming rapids in a canyon’ (see 3.5.). The loan etymology is semantically flawless, as identical meanings are attested in Saami and Scandinavian. The assumed sound substitution *-sj- > *š is natural: the secondary Proto-Saami š was inherently palatalised (= *[š]), and hence it is a predictable substitute for aforeign  sequence -sj-. As a parallel one can cite SaaN áššu ‘glowing coals’ < PS *āšō < PScand *asjō-   (>  Swedish ässja ‘hearth in a smithy’). The South Saami cognates show irregular oscillation between PS *š and *s: SaaS bårsedh ~ barsjedh ~ borsedh ‘to stream; to roar, rush (of water in a largeriver)’. This is probably due to the expressive character of the word. However, the irregular -s- might also have developed due to the influence of the separate  borrowing *porsē ‘rapids in a canyon’, which has not been preserved in SouthSaami.

 

On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 21

3.7.

SaaN deahkki ‘thick meat, muscle’ (U, L–T; YSS 1240) < PS *teakkē < PreS *tekkä < PGerm *þekwia- ‘thick’ (> Old Norse þykkr, German dick, English thick, metc.)  (ÍO s.v. þykkur; VA s.v. tykk; SEO s.v tjock; Kluge  s.v. dick) In etymological references SaaN deahkki has been considered cognate with Finn. täkkä ‘thick meat on the chest of a game bird’ (e.g. SSA s.v.). However, this word is systematically attested only in northern Finland, in addition to  which there are scattered attestations in parts of northern Savo, North Karelia, and central and northern Ostrobothnia (LAFD). On distributional grounds the Finnish item is thus obviously a Saami substrate loanword; the sound substitution  ea > ä  is regular in borrowings from Saami. SaaN deahkki regularly reflects PreS *tekkä, which can be compared to the Germanic adjective *þekwia-‘thick’. Phonologically the etymology is unprob-lematic; the sound subsitution *-kw- > *-kk is natural, as a cluster *-kw- was not permitted by Uralic phonotaxis.

As for the semantics, the Saami items are widely glossed as ‘thick meat’ in dictionaries: SaaN deahkki ‘meat without bone, the thick  meat’ (Nielsen 1979 s.v. dæk'ke), ‘Muskel, dickes Fleisch beimMenschen und Tieren’ (Lagercrantz 1939 no. 7791), SaaI tekki ‘das dicke, knochenlose Fleisch’ (E. Itkonen 1986–1991 s.v.), SaaSk teäkk ‘knochenloses dickes fleisch’ (T. I. Itkonen 1958: 579) (emphasis added).

There also exists agood parallel for the semantic development: Finn. tykky ‘thick, stout; snow loadon trees; lean meat, meat with little fat’, which is a later borrowing from the same Germanic word family,  cf. Old  Norse þykkr ‘thick’   (Koivulehto 1996).

3.8. SaaS doerpedh ‘to need’, SaaP (der.) < tuorptet > (= tuor'patit or tuorpatit) ‘to need, require, be necessary’ < PS *tuorpë- < PreS *tarpi- < PGerm *þarbō- (> Old Norse þarfa ‘to be necessary’) (ÍO, AEWb s.v. þarfa) The PS root *tuorpë-  is only attested in SaaS doerpedh and in a suffixed form inold Pite Saami < tuorptet>; the latter word is only found in Halász’s dictionary(1891), and the notation must represent either SaaP tuor'patit (< *tuorpë-tē-) or tuorpatit  (< *tuorpë-ttē-). The etymological connection between SaaS doerpedh ‘to need’ and the Germanic item was already noticed by Lagercrantz (1939 no.8092b), who however mistakenly interpreted the word as a Scandinavian borrowing. This is not possible due to the sound correspondence PS *uo ~ PScand* a.

Aikio 22 

There is also an ablaut form with -u- in Germanic (cf. Old Norse þurfa ‘to be required, needed’, Old High German durfan, Old English ðurfan, etc.), but Saami *-uo- cannot reflect foreign -u- either. But Lagercrantz’s etymology can be rehabilitated in a slightly different form. The sound correspondence receivesits explanation if we assume that the word was already borrowed into Pre-Saamiin the form *tarpi-, which then underwent the regular change *a > *uo. Thenativisation of a Germanic *ō-stem verb into the Pre-Saami class of *i-stems has occurred in many other cases, too (cf. 3.2., 3.10., 3.18., 3.22. and 3.26.).The same Germanic word has also been adopted into Finnic, cf. Finnish tarve (tarpee-) ‘need’ and tarvita (tarvitse-) ‘to need’. Due to their different suffixes these items are most probably separate borrowings and not cognate with SaaS doerpedh. There is also a separate, later borrowing in Saami from thesame Germanic word family: SaaN dárbu ‘need’ < PScand *þarbō (> Old Norse þorf ‘need, necessity’). Also Finnish tarvita ‘to need’ has been further mediated to Saami, cf. SaaN dárbbašit ‘to need’. This loan item shows an extensive distribution, reaching from South Saami to Skolt Saami. It is possiblethat this later Finnic borrowing has largely replaced the reflexes of the older loanword *tuorpë-.

3.9.

SaaN duoddut ‘to bear, stand, tolerate’, SaaS duedtedh ‘to endure hard weather (of draught reindeer)’ (S, N–K) < PS *tuont-ō-, *tuontē- < PreS* tanta- < PGerm *standa- ‘to stand’ (> English stand, Gothic standan, Old Norse standa etc.)  (ÍO s.  standa; VA, SEO s.v. stå) The Saami word family has not been included in Lehtiranta’s common Saami vocabulary (YSS) in spite of its wide distribution. The forms in North Saamiand eastern Saami reflect a labial stem (PS *tuontō-). The labial vowel can beanalysed as a suffix. The original illabial stem *tuontē- is preserved in a specialised meaning in SaaS duedtedh ‘to endure hard weather (of draught reindeer)’; all the other Saami languages show a more general meaning ‘to bear, stand,  tolerate’.  The Pre-Saami form  of  the verb can be reconstructed as *tanta-, which can be analysed as a borrowing from Proto-Germanic *standa- ‘to stand’. The semantics of the Saami word exactly matches the secondary meaning ‘to stand’ = ‘to bear, endure, tolerate’, which in addition to English is attested in at least Old Norse (IED: 588). A parallel semantic relation also occurs in Finn. sietää ‘to bear, stand, tolerate’ (< PF *sētä-). This word consists of the stem *sē- and the verbal suffix *-tä-, and the stem is very probably a borrowing from PGerm *stē- ‘to stand’ (> Swedish stå, Old High German stān, etc.) (cf. SSAs.v.). Moreover, the meaning Knud Leem has attested for SaaN duoddut  bringsthe comparison even closer: duodom [= duottun] ‘staaer fast, bestandig, saa jeg ei faldes, saasom havende beqvemt Rum at staa paa’ (= ‘I stand firm, secure, so that I do not fall, as I have a comfortable room to stand in’; here cited accordingto Nielsen 1979 V: 22).

 

On Germanic-Saami contacts and Saami prehistory 23

Phonologically the etymology is quite self-evident. It is true that in theearly Germanic loanwords of Finnic the initial cluster *st- was usually renderedwith PreF *s-, not *t-. However, this substitution seems to be scarcely attested in the independent loanwords in Saami. There is one clear example, SaaN soabbi ‘staff, stick’ < PS *soampē < PreS *sompa < Indo-European *stombho- >Old Indic stambha- ‘post, column, pillar’ (Sammallahti 1999: 81), but as this loanword seems to be quite old, it does not rule out the idea that the substitution* st- > *t-   was  possible  in  a  later  Germanic  borrowing.

3.10.

SaaL gahppat  ‘to jump, leap’, SaaU gah'pat ‘to gallop’, SaaS gahpedh ‘toclimb; to jump and run around; to rise on the hind legs and kick with the forelegs (of reindeer)’ < PS *këppë- << (via labial dissimilation) *koppë- < PreS *kuppi- < PGerm *huppō(ja)- ‘to leap, jump, hop’ (> Old Norce, Icelandic, Swedish hoppa, English hop) or *huppia- id. (> Germ hüpfen) (ÍO, AEWb, SEO s.v. hoppa; Kluge s.v. hüpfen) The verb *këppë- shows reflexes from South to Lule Saami, and the meaningsoscillate between ‘jumping’, ‘running’, ‘galloping’, and the like.

The word shows a notable resemblance to Germanic *huppō(ja)- ‘to jump, leap, hop’. The loan etymology is phonologically quite straightforward, as long as PS *këppë- is analysed as a word that has undergone the sporadic labial dissimilation *o > *ë adjacent to labial consonants. There are numerous examples of this development;  see 3.1.  for parallels and discussion. The substitution of PS *k- for PGerm *h- (*x-) shows that the borrowing is quite old. This sound correspondence poses no problem to the etymology, as the same substitution is also attested in other  borrowings which occur  exclusively  in Saami (see e.g. 3.11., 3.13.). As for the second syllable vowel, there are alsomany other examples of the substituion of PreS *-i- for Germanic *-ō- in verbstems (see 3.2., 3.8., 3.18., 3.22., 3.26.).