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Etruscan Glossary

by Patrick C. Ryan

Banqueters in a Tomb Painting from Tarquinia







Youth from Malavolta











ac: verb, make, offer, act
acazr: noun, objects offered in the tomb
acale (Aclus): noun, June
ais, eis (pl. aisar, eisar), god
aisiu: adjective, divine, of the gods

aisna, eisna: adjective, divine, of the gods
al: verb, give, offer
alpan, alpnu: noun / adverb, gift, offering; willingly
alphaze: noun, offering
alumnathe: noun, sacred society
am: verb, to be
an (ana, ane, anc, ananc): pronoun, he, she
apa: noun, father
apana: adjective, paternal
apcar: noun, abacus
ar-, er-: verb, to make, move, build
*arac: noun, falcon
*arim: noun, monkey
ars-: verb, push away?
aska: noun, type of vase (Gk. askós)
athre: noun, building (Lat. atrium?)
ati, ativu: noun, mother, 'mummy'
ati nacna: noun, grandmother
avil: noun, year


-c: conjunction, and
ca: demonstrative, this
camthi: noun, name of a magistracy
cape, capi: noun, vase,container(cf. Lat. capio:?)
*capr-: noun, April
capra: noun, urn
*capu: noun, falcon
car-, cer-: verb, make, build
cecha: noun, sacred things, ritual, ceremony, priestly
zilch cechaneri: noun, a title (see zil etc.)
cechase: noun, name of magistracy
cehen: demonstrative, this one here
cela: noun, room (Lat. cella)
celi: noun, September
celu: noun, priestly title
cep-, cepen: noun, priestly title
ces-: verb, lie
cezp: numeral, 8?
cezpalch: numeral, 80?
ci: numeral, 3
cialch-, cealch-: numeral, 30
ciz: adverb, three times
cisra: noun, Caere
clan (pl. clenar): noun, son
cletram: noun, basin, basket, cart for offerings (Umbrian kletra)
cleva: noun, offering
clevsin: noun, Chiusi
creal: noun, magistrate
creice: noun, Greek (Lat. Graecus)
culichna: noun, vase, 'little kylix' (Gk. kylix)
cupe: noun, cup (Gk. kúpe:, Lat. cupa)
cver: noun, cvil, gift, offering


*chosfer (gloss): noun, October


eca (see ca)
eleivana: adjective, of oil
aska eleivana: noun, vessel for oil (Gk. élaion)
-em: adposition, minus
enac, enach: adverb, then, afterwards
epl, pi, pul: adposition, in, to, up to
eslz: adverb, twice
etera, eteri: noun, foreigner; slave, client (serf?)
etnam: adverb, and, also


*falatu (gloss, falado): noun, sky
fan-: verb, to consecrate?
fanu: noun, sacred place (Lat. fa:num?)
favi: noun, grave, temple vault (Lat. fauissa?)
fler: noun, offering, sacrifice
flerchva: noun, all the statues, offerings
flere: noun, divinity, god
flereS: noun, statue
frontac: noun, interpreter of lightning; see
trutnuth (Gk. bronte:?)
fufluna, see pupluna


hanthin: adposition, in front of
hec-, hech-: verb, put, place in front of, add
herma, heramasva: noun, place, statue? (Gk. Hermes)
herme, hermu: noun, sacred society of Hermes *hermi- (gloss, Ermius): noun, August
hinthial: noun, soul, ghost, reflection
hintha, hinthu, hinththin: adposition, below
hus- (pl. husiur): noun, youth, children;
huznatre: noun, group of youths
huth: numeral, 6


ic, ich, ichnac: adverb, how
ica, ika: demonstrative, this
ilu-: verb, activity of offering or prayer
in, inc: pronoun, it
ipa: pronoun, relative pronoun
ipe, ipa: pronoun, whoever, whatever
*ister (gloss: Lat. histrio): noun, actor
ita, itu: demonstrative, this
*itu- (gloss: itus or
ituare): verb, to divide? (Lat. Idus)


lauchum: noun, king (Lat. lucumo:)
lauchumna: adjective / noun, 'belonging to a lucumo' (king or prince), palace
lautni: adjective / noun, 'of the family', freedman
lautnitha, lautnita: noun, freedwoman
lautun, lautn: noun, family, gens
lechtum: noun, vase for oil (Gk. le:kuthos)
lechtumuza: noun, little le:kuthos
lein- : verb,to die?
les-: verb, offer sacrifice
leu-: noun, lion
lucair: verb, to rule
luth: noun, sacred place
lup-, lupu: verb, to die


-m, -um: conjunction, and
mach: numeral, 5
macstrev: noun, name of magistracy
mal-: verb, to give, dedicate?
malena, malstria: noun, mirror
man, mani: noun, the dead (Lat. Manes)
manin-: verb, to offer to the Manes?
maru, marunu: noun, name of magistracy (Lat. maro:, Umbr. maron-)
masan, masn: noun, name of month?
matam, matan: adposition, above, before
math: noun, honey, honeyed wine
maruchva: noun, type of zilath
mech: noun, people, league
men-: verb, offer
methlum: noun, district
mi, mini: pronoun, I, me
mul-: verb, to offer, dedicate as an ex-voto
mulach, malak, mlach: noun, votive offering, dedication
mun-, muni: noun, underground place, tomb
mur-: verb, stay, reside
murS: noun, urn, sarcophagus
mutana, mutna: noun, sarcophagus


nac: adverb / conjunction, how, as, because
neftS, nefS, nefiS: noun, grandson (Lat. nepos)
nene: noun, nurse, wet-nurse
neri: noun, water
nesna: noun, belonging to the dead?
nethSra: noun, haruspicina
netSvis: noun, haruspex
nuna: noun, offering?
nurph-: numeral, 9


pachathur: noun, Bacchante, maenad
pachie-, pachana: adjective, Bacchic
pacusnaSie, pacuSnasie: adjective, Bacchic, Dionysiac
papa, papacs: noun, grandfather
papals: adjective / noun, of the grandfather: grandson
parnich: noun, magistrate
patna: noun, name of vase (Gk. patane, Lat. patina?)
penthuna, penthna: noun, cippus, stone?
pi, pul: adposition, at, in, through
pruch, pruchum: noun, lug (Gk. próchous)
prumathi, prumats: noun, great-grandson (Lat. pronepos)
puia: noun, wife
pul, see pi
pulumchva: noun, stars?
pupluna, fufluna: noun, Populonia
purth, purthne: noun, name of magistrate or magistracy; dictator?
put-, puth-: noun, cup, vase, well? (Lat. puteus, puteal)


qutun, qutum: noun, vase (Gk. ko:tho:n)


rach-: verb, prepare
*rasenna, rasna: adjective, Etruscan, of Etruria
rath: noun, sacred thing
ratum: adjective, according to law (Lat. rite)
ril: adjective, aged, at the age of ... (years)
rumach: adjective, Roman, from Rome
ruva: noun, brother

(s and S [/sh/] are often interchangeable)

Sa: numeral, 4
sac-: verb, carrying out a sacred act
sacni: noun, sanctuary
sacnisa: verb, consecrate?
sal-: verb, make, carry out
Sar, zar: numeral, 10
sath-, Sat-: verb, put, establish, be put?
Sealch: numeral, 40
sec, sech: noun, daughter
semph: numeral, 7?
semphalch: numeral, 70?
slicaches: noun, sacred society?
snenath: noun, maid, companion (fem.)
spur-: noun, city
spurana, spureni: adjective, having to do with the city
Sran, sren: noun, ornament, figure
srencve: adjective, decorated with figures!
suc-: verb, declare
suplu: noun, flutist (Lat. subulo)
Suth-, sut-: verb, to stay, place
Suthi: noun, tomb, grave
Suthina: adjective, for the tomb, sepulchral gift
sval: adjective / verb, alive, to live
sve: adverb, similarly
sveamach: adjective, from Sovana


ta: demonstrative, this
tamera: noun, name of magistracy
tarchnalthi: adjective, at Tarquinia
ten-: verb, to act as
tes-, tesam-: verb, to care for
tesinth: noun, caretaker
teta: noun, grandmother
tev-: verb, to show, set?
tevarath: noun, onlooker, judge at the games, umpire
tin-: noun, day
tiu, tiv-, tiur: noun, moon, month
tmia: noun, place, sacred building
-tnam, see
trin-: verb, to plead, supplicate
truth, trut: noun, libation
trutnuth, trutnut: noun, priest (Lat. fulguriator)
tul: noun, stone
tular, tularu: noun, boundaries
tunur: adverb, one at a time
tur-: verb, to give
tura: noun, incense
turza: noun, offering
tus: noun, funerary niche
tusurthir: noun, married couple? ('in the double urn'?)
tuthi, tuti-: noun, community, state (Umbrian tota?)
tuthin, tuthina-: adjective, of the state, public
tuthina: noun, the people; votive object?


thafna: noun, cup
tham-: verb, to build, found
thapna: noun, vase (for offerings?)
thaurch: adjective, funerary
thaure, thaura: noun, tomb
thez-: verb, to make an offering
thezl, thezi: noun, name of a city found on Etruscan coins
thi: pronoun, pronoun
thina: noun, vase, jar (Lat. tina, Gk. dînos)
thu: numeral, one
thucte: noun, name of month
thui: adverb, here, now
thuni: conjunction, before
thunz: adverb, once


ulpaia: noun, jug (Gk. olpe:)
une: adverb, then
usil: noun, the sun
uslane: adverb, at noon
ut-: verb, carry out, perform


vacal, vacil, vacl: noun, libation?
*velcitna (gloss, Velcitanus): noun, March
velclthi: adjective, at Vulci
velsnalthi: adjective, at Volsinii (velznani)
velsnach: adverb, from Volsinii
vers-: noun, fire (or ladle?)
vinum, vinm: noun, wine (Lat. ui:num)


zal, zel-, esal-: numeral, 2
zanena: noun, cup
zar, see
zathrum: numeral, 20
zeri: noun, rite, legal action?
zich-: verb, to write, incise
zil-: verb, to rule?
zil, zilac, zilc, zilach, zilath: noun, a magistrate (Lat. praetor)
ziv: adjective, having lived, dead at
ziva: noun, the dead, deceased


go to first 35+ root cognates (1-35) ?


(While I am hoping that this small Glossary will serve some useful purpose, serious students should also be aware of the compilation of Etruscan lexical information at

Damien Erwan Perrotin's Etruscan Etymological Dictionary website. )





Created by Damien ErwanPerrotin



Words are ordered according to theirplace in the latin alphabet



N P Ph Q R S/SH T Th


Back to homepage





Acale : june (Latin Gloss) // of unknown origin

Acas : to make, to sacrifice // Of unknown origin

Ais, Eis : god// Old Icelandic : ass (gods of the scandinavian pantheon)// Cretan asasara (probably a divine name)// The whole hing ishowever quite uncertain. A link with Celtic and Germanic*isarn- (iron) is also possible as the first available source ofthis metal was meteorits. It could therefore be considered as of celestial origin. (See Benvéniste, 1969)

Al : to make (used with vases) // of unknownorigin

Alpan, Alpnu : willingly (imperfect form of the verb *alp (to want)) // of unknown origin

Alphaze : designates a personn, a kind of magistrate

Am(u) : to be// English: to be // Bretonbezan (to be) :Sanskrit : bhavati (hebecomes) // Latin fuisse (to have been) // Russian byt' (to be) // Lithuanian buti (to be) //Indo-european mbhew (to become)

Ame : designates a kind of offering

Ampile : may// perhaps related to Greek ampellos (vine) //Breton aval (apple) // English apple // Russian Jablako (apple)//Hungarian alma (apple) // Finnish omena (apple) // probably a etruscan related substrate word in european tongues ( (e)mbhetl)

An : he, she; marked absolutive of ia // Latin : is (he)

Ancaru : Godess of Death // Latin: angerona (roman godess associated with winter) // Breton: ankou (the Death) // Greek anankê(necessity) // Hittite henkan (death) // Indo-european Haenk-

*Antha : eagle, Boreas // Unknownorigin

Apa : father// Gothic aba (man, husband) // Icelandic afe (greatparent)

Apcar : abacus // probably a loanword from greek abax(tablett)

Ar : to do, to make // Latin : arare (to plough) // Breton arat (to plough)// Greek aroo (toplough) // Gothic arjan (to plough) //Lithuanian : ariu (to plough) //Indo-european *ary- (to plough) // c.f Breton labour (to work),from French Labourer (to plough)

*Arac : hawk// Gothic : ara (eagle) // Greek ornis (bird) // Breton erer (eagle) // Lithuanian aras (eagle) //Hittite haras (eagle) // Indo-european *oros(eagle)

*Arim : monkey// of unknown origin (probably borrowed as there are no monkeys in Etruria)

Ars : to turn away, to remove // of unknownorigin

As : to offer, to give // of unknown origin

Aska : container of leather //loanword from greek askos (samemeaning)

At : to make a ritual action, to offer // of unknown origin

Ati : mother// Gothic: athei (mother) // Oscan: aeda (father) // Hittite : attas (father)// Old Irish: aite (educator) // OldSlavic : otitshi (father) //Albanese at (father) // Indo-european : *atta(father)

Atran : some kind of priest // of unknownorigin

Athre : atrium// Latin : atrium (probably an etruscan loanword)

Avil : year// Gothic : aiws (eternity), Latin : aevus (time,eternity), Greek : ayôn (lifetime), Albanese : eshë (lapsof time); Old Irish: aes (life, age), Indo-european : *aiwon(lifetime)

 Avilxva :yearly // derivated from Avil, byadding a adjectival suffix -xva



-C : and //Latin -que(and) // Sanskrit: -ca (and) // Gothic: -uh (and) // Greek te (and)// Gaulish -k (and) // Venetian-ke (and) // Hittite -ki (and)// Armenian -kh (and)

-c, -ca : the

Ca : this //Latin ecce(that is) // Hittite kas (this) // Greek ekeinons (this)

Camthi : title of a magistrate // of unknown origin

Cap : to take away // Latin capere (to take) // Gothic haban (to have)

Capr : april// ofunknown origin

Capra : urn //of unknown origin

*Capu : hawk// Old english hafoc (hawk), from germanic *capoc

Car / cer: to buid,to make // Latin: creare (create) // Sanskrit : karoti (hedoes)

Cautha : sun,sun-god // Gothic : gud (god) // English god

Cecha : ritual / to make a ritual action // of unknown origin

Cealx : thirty// of unknown origin

Cela : cell// probably a loanword from Latin cella

Celi : september // of unknownorigin

Celu :sacred offering, holy //Old high german : heilag (holy) // Welsh coel (presage)

cen : to do, to make // of unknown origin

Cep : sacerdotal title // ofunknown origin

Ces : to lay, to set, to establish (a legal document) // Hittite kis (to comb) //Greek keimai (I lie down)

Ces : kind of magistrate

ci : three //perhaps a loanword fromUrartean kig (three)

Clan : son// Irish clann (childrenn) // Welshplant (childrenn) // Breton plac'h (younggirl) // Vannetais plantenn (girl) //Tocharian B kliye (girl)//Sanskrit kula (race) // Lithuaniankiltis (race, stock) // Old slavic celadiju(familly) // Greek telos (company)

Cletram : basket //probably a loanword from ombrian kletra

Cleva : offer// of unknown origin

Creal :magistrate // of unknownorigin

Culichna :kind of vase // probably a loanword from Greek kylix (cup)

Cupe : cup// probably a loanword fromgreek kupe (cup)

Cver : gift //of unknown origin



Ei : absolutive plural of ia

Ein :them, they , anaphoric pronoun, marked absolutive of ei //Latin is (he)

Eleivana : oily // probably a loanwordof an extinct mediteranean tongue, through Greek

-Em : from//of unknown origin

Ers : see ars

Etera : servant, foreigner // probably a loanword from osco-ombrian etera

Etnam : and,also // of unknown origin


Fas : relativ epronoun // probably borrowed from an Oscan dialect (pis)

*Falatu : sky// of unknown origin

Fan : to consacrate // of unknownorigin

Fanu : sacred place // Latin fanum (probably an etruscan loanword)

Farth : to bring // of unknown origin

Favi : dirch, grave // Latin favissa (probably an etruscan loanword)

Fashe : relative pronoun (see fas)

Fir : to bring // perhaps borrowed to Latin ferere (to bear)

Fler : sacred statue // of unknown origin

Flere : sacred statue //of unknown origin

Fleres : sacred statue // of unknown origin

Frontac :fortune teller //of unknownorigin

Fulumchva : stars // of unkown origin


Hamphe : may// variant of ampile

Hanthin : in front of // Latin : ante (before) // Greek :anti (against, in front of) //Armenien : and (in front of) // Lithuanian :ant (in front of) // Hittite : hanti (infront of)

Hec : to put,to add // of unknownorigin

Heramas : sacred statue// of unknown origin

Herme : sacred society dedicaced to hermes // perhapsloaned from Greek Hermes

hinthin : to depose (down)

Hinthial : soul, gost // derivated from Hinthin (below)

hinthin, hintha : below // Latin inferus (below) // Sanskrit adhas (under) //Avestan :ada (below, under) //Gothic : undar (below) //Tocharian A : anc (below) // Indo-european : *ndheri(below)

Hus : boy,young man // of unknownorigin


ia : it

Ic, ix, : it

ixnac how // of unknownorigin

Ica : c.fca

Ilu : to offer// of unknown origin

In, Inc : it// c.f an

Ipa : this // Hitite apas (this) //Lycian ebe (this)

Ita : this //Latin : istud (this) // Russian :eto (this) // Greek : to (the) //Gothic : thata (this) // Sanskrit: tah (this)

Itu : to divide // of unknownorigin



Lauxum : king//Latin ducere (to lead) // Breton dougen (to lead) // Gothic tiuhan (to draw) //from an hypothetical *tleuk

Lautn :familly // Old english leod (people) // Russianljudi (people) // Lithuanian : liaudis(people)

Lautni : ofthe familly, fredman // c.f Lautn

Lextum : kinof vase // probably a loanword fromGreek lekythos

Lein : to die// Latin languere (to be weak, to languish) // Middle Irish lacc (weak)// Old English sleac (slack) // Old Balticlenu (slow, indolent) //Indo-European (s)le- (to be weak)

Les : to offer, to give // of unknownorigin

Leu : lion //probably a loanword from an extinct mediterranean tongue

Lucair : to rule // c.f Lauxum

Lup- : to die,to have lived // perhaps linked toGermanic *libhan (to live) : English to live // German leben (to live) // Gothic libains (life)


-m : and// Hittite -ma (but, emphaticparticle) // Lydian -m (emphatic particle)

Macstrev : name of a magitrate // Oldenglish magan (can) // German macht (power)-veryuncertain

Mach : five //Perhaps linked to IE*penkwe, with an initial pre-nazalized, yelding thus mpenkwe //Gothic fimf (five) //Russian pjat' (five) // Breton pemp (five)

Mal- : to give, to dedicate // of unknownorigin

Malstria : miror // of unknownorigin

Man : tomb, grave //of unknown origin

Maru : nameof a magistracy // of unknownorigin

Masan : name of a month // of unknownorigin

Mata : kind of vase // of unknownorigin

Matan : in front of, over // Greek :meta (beside, after) // Gothic : mith(with)

Mech : people//Latin pagus (village) probably an etruscan loanword

Methlum : people // c.fMech

Mi : I //Latin : me(me) // Breton me (I) // Gothic : mik (me) // Russian minja (me) //Sanskrit mam (me) // Greekeme (me)

Mir : we // see mi

Mul : to offer// of unknown origin

Mulch : beautiful // Latin pulcher (beautiful) probably an etruscan loanword // Latin fulgo (to shine) // Lithuanian blizgu (to shine) // Tocharian pälk (to shine) // Greek phalos (white) //Old Slavic belu (white) // Breton melen (yellow) , probably a substratum word// from an hypothetical *mbhlg

Mlac : votive offering // of unknownorigin

Mun : tomb //Latin monumentum (tomb), probably an etruscan loanword

Munis- : to endow, to have the charge of // Latin munus (religious charge) from an older *munes-, most probably a loanword from either way

Mur : to stay,to remain (intransitive), to put, to depose (transitive) // Latin : morari (to remain) //Irish maraim (I stay)

Murs : urn,sarcophagus // of unknownorigin

Mutana : sarcophagus // ofunknown origin

*Mutu : thyme// Breton: bent (mint) // Greek: minthos (mint), probably borrowed //Latin menta (mint), probably borrowed // Old High German munza(mint), perhaps borrowed


Nac : then// of unknown origin

Nap : unit of measure for surface // of unknown origin

Naplan : kindof vase // of unknownorigin

Nefts (lemnian nafoth): nephew, grandson //Latin :nepot (grandson) // Avestan :napat (same sense) // Sanskrit : napat (samesense) // Greek : nepodes (descendents) // Albanese : nip (nephew) //Old Irish : nia (same sense) // Lithuanian : nepuotis (grandson) //Indo-european *nepots

Nes : dead person // of unknown origin

Nes : to die// of unknown origin

Nesna : belonging to the deads // of unknown origin

Nethshrac :haruspex // of unknown origin

Nuna : offerings // of unknown origin

Nurph : nine// of unknown origin


Papa : grandfather // Latinpater (father) // English father //Sanskrit pitar (id) // Armenian hayr (id) // Old Irish : athir (id) //Greek pêter (id)

Parch : attribute of a magistracy // of unknown origin

Parla : kindof vase // of unknownorigin

Patna : kindof vase // Latin : patena (same sense) probably an etruscan loanword

Penthuna :stone // of unknownorigin

Prumats :great grandson // probably a compund, the second member of whichmats coulbrelated to indo-european // Breton map (son) // Irish mac (son) //Gothic : magus (boy)

Pruchum : pitcher // probably a loanword from Greek prokhus (same sense)

Puia : wife //Greek opuien (to marry), probably a loanword from a language close to Lemnian

Pulumchva : stars // of unknownorigin

Purth : dictator // Gothicfrauja (lord) // Greek protos (first)//indo-european *per-hw (what is before)

Put : to accomplish a ritual action // of unknown origin

Puth : well,fountain // Greek potamos (river) // Latinpotare (to drink) // Hittite pasi (to drink) //Russian pit' (to drink) // Breton evan (to drink) // Indo-european *pehw- (todrink)


Phersna : from Perugia // of unknown origin

Phersu : mask,actor // Latin personna (actor, mask) probably an etruscan loanword


Qutun : kindof pitcher // probably a loanword from Greek kothon


Ril : in the age of // of unknownorigin

Ruva : brother// of unknown origin


Sha : six //of unknown origin

Sac : to consecrate // Latin sacer (sacred) // Greek hagios (holy) // Oscan sakoro (sacred) //Hittite saklai (custom)

Sacni : sanctuary // c.f Sac

San : ancestor// Breton: hen (old) // Latin :senex (old man) // Sanskrit : sanas (old) //Avestan hano (old) // Amenianhyn (old) // Lithuanian senas (old) //Greek henos (old)

Santi : kind of offering // of unknown origin

Sath : to put,to be put // English to set // Latin sedere (to sit) // Sanskrit sadayati (heputs) // Old Irish atsuidi (to retain) // Gothic satjan (toput)

Shar : ten //of unknown origin

Sec : daughter// Tocharian B soy (son)//Greek huius (son) // Irish sutthe (birth) // from an hypothetical sukt(e) (the born one)

Sel-: to do,to make // of unknownorigin

Semph : eight? seven ? // of unknownorigin

Sval : to live//Latin valeo (I am well, I am strong) // Old Baltic veliji (great)//English to swell // Indo-european(s)wal- : to be strong, to bebig

Snenath : maid, mate // of unknownorigin

Snuiaph : sacred offering // of unknown origin

Span : lowland // of unknown origin

Spanti : kind of vase // of unknownorigin

Spet : to drink // Latin bibere (to drink) // Sanskrit pibati (to drink)// Albanese pi (to drink) // Old Irishibim (I drink) // Prussian poieiti (todrink)

Spur : city //Sanskrit Pur (wall) // Greek spartê (name of a city) // Lydian Sparda (name of acity)

Spureni :civic // c.f Spur

Spuriaze : public // c.f Spur

Shran : figure// of unknown origin

Shrencve : decorated // of unknownorigin

Suth : to stay, to place // Englishto sit // Lithuanian sedeti (to sit)// Breton azezan (to sit) // Gothic sitan (to sit) // Sanskrit sidati (to sit)// Greek hizo (I sit)

Suthi : tomb// of unknown origin

Suthina : sepulchral // of unknownorigin

Suplu : piper// of unknown origin


Ta : this //Russian eto (this) // Greekto (the) // Gothic thata (this) //Latin istud (this) // Sanskrittah (he)

Tam : to build// Latin domus (house) // Russiandom (house) // Gothic timrjan (to build)// Greek demo (I build)

Tamera : name of a priest // GreekThemeres (holy), probably a loanword)// Hittite dammara (priest)

*Tamna : horse// Breton danvad (sheep) // Irishdamh (ox) // Greek dammalis (calf) //Gothic :gatamjan (to tame)

Tanasa : actor(having acted as - intensive perfective participle) //Irish :deanaim (I do) // Armenian dnem (I do)

Tev : to show, to place// of unknown origin

Tevarath :watcher // of unknown origin

Ten : to practice a public office // Irish :deanaim (I do) // Armenian dnem (Ido)

Tesh : to bring // of unknown origin

Tesinth :curator // of unknown origin

Tin : day //Sanskrit dinam (day) // Latin nundinum (nine days' laps) // Old Irish tredenus (threedays) // Lithuanian diena (day) // Old slavicdini (day)

Tivr : moon (the bright one) // Sanskritdyaus (bright sky, day) // Latin dies (day)

Tmia : holy building // C.F Tam

-Tnam : and //of unknown origin

Trin : to make a ritual action // of unknownorigin

*truna : power// of unknown origin

Trut : verb used for sacred actions // of unknownorigin

Trutnut : fortune teller // of unknown origin

Tuthi : state// perhaps an oscan loanword (Tota)

Tuthi : to give

Tuthin : public // related totuthi

Tular : stone,border // of unknownorigin

Tur : to give// Latin donum (gift) // Greekdoron (gift) // Russian dat' (to give)// Sanskrit danam (gift) // Armeniantur (gift) // Old slavic daru(gift)

Turane : july// of unknown origin

Turza : offer// c.f Tur

Turn : given// c.f tur

Tus : niche //of unknown origin


Thap : to consecrate // of unknownorigin

Thaur : tomb// of unknown origin

Thaurch : seplchral // of unknownorigin

*Theuru : bull// probably a semitic loanword

Thes : to bring

Thesan : dawn// of unknown origin

Thez : to sacrifice // of unknownorigin

Thina : kind of vase // of unknownorigin

Thu : two

Thuv- : to erect // Lycian : tuve- (to erect, to place)


Ulpaia : name of a vase // probably a loanword fromgreek olpe

Usil : sun //Gothic sawil (sun) // Latinsol (sun) // Greek helios (sun) //Sanskrit suryah (sun) // Bretonheol (sun) // Indo-European sewel

Ut : to give// of unknown origin


Vacal : libation //Sanskrit ohati (to announce) //A vestan aog (to say) //Latin voveo (to dedicace) //Greek eukhomai (to vow) //Indo-european *(w)egwh

Velitna : march // of unknownorigin

Vers : fire// Breton gwrez : (heath)

Vertun : kindof vase

Vinum : wine// probably a loanword from a mediterranean tongue


Zavena : drinking vase // of unknown origin

Zathrum : twenty // of unknownorigin

Zal : two //of unknown origin

Zatlath : companion // of unknownorigin

Zeri : rite //of unknown origin

Ziva : having lived // Sanskrit : jivati (He lives) // Avestan : jvaiti (helives) // Latin vivo (I live) // Old slaviczhivo (I live) // Greek ebion (I have lived)// Breton beva (to live)

Zil : topractise a magistracy // of unknownorigin

Zilac : magistracy // of unknownorigin

Zic : To paint, to write, to incise // of unknownorigin