https://www.academia.edu/33538601/2500_PIE_roots_summary_The_Source_Code_2.5_.xls


*ked (1.smoke):Outstanding/solid presence (k),active subject (e),loss of condition (d)
*ked (2. tree): Outstanding solid presence (k), active subject (e), related to (d)

These are same word: Cedar, Kedras, kadagys, kadegis, kataja, kadakas mean "smoke tree".
The root can be also Finno-Ugric or Paleo-Aziatic orgin (fin. katku, kaasu):

91. Ch *qъCvo "cedar = seetri" (M 198: *qъrvo''), cf. Koryak qasv, qysv, qyčvo "Zeder = seetri, Zirbelkiefer = sembramänty" (Bouda 1961: 356); FU *koča "eine Art Nadelbaum" (UEW 165) or FU *käč(ŋ)ɜ "Wacholder = kataja" (UEW 133).

Vasmer and Trubachev: Russian etymology gegards the root *kat Finno-Ugric: кади́ть (kadit) = to belch incense.

Myös englannin < hollannin sana gas = kaasu,liittyy tähän:se on hollantilaisen kemisti Helmontin tiedelaina Palestiinan arabiasta (ghazon,al-ghazu =kaasu), mahdollisesti kreikan khaos on myös samaa perua.

Sanoilla ei ole tekemistä englannin sanan chew = jauhaa (hampaissaan), saksan kauen = kaluta, liettuan žiaunos = leuat ("ne jotka jauhavat") eivät liity tähän, ne tulevat *gʰe-tyyppisestä juuresta, joka tarkoittaa pureskelua.

Mitä sitten tulee sanaan kasvi (uudissana,siitä "kermaaninen" taivutus), kasvaa, viron kasvama, unkarin haszon [hason] = lisä, hyöty etu voitto, jotka kovasti muistuttavat Tshuktshin sanaa, jossa kuitenkin on vahvoja SU-piirteitä, niin sen voisanoa ainakin varmasti, että Jorma Koivulehdon "Kaermaanietymologia on ehdottoman varmasti päin persettä ja hänen typerimpiään lajissaan. Näin sanoo myös Ralf-Peter Ritter:

" ...
12. Allerdings macht der "Ström" einige Schleifen. Vielfach haben die Aufsätze im wesentlichen identis-chen Inhalt. Beispielsweise kann man die Problematik kasvaa/rasva in KOIVULEHTO 1988, 1990a und 1990b ausführlich referiert finden.

... 87

KOIVULEHTO sieht seine Herleitung dadurch "bestätigt", daß die nämliche Metathe- se auch "der einzige fi. Reimstamm" aufweist. KOIVULEHTO zufolge ist nämlich fi. kasva- die Entlehnung eines indogermanischen *h2aukse/o- ‘wachsen’ mit Substitution des Laryngals durch k.

Wenn es sich bei den beiden Wörtern aber um die einzigen Fälle mit der Lautfolge sv handelt,dann war die Verbindung *sv zur Zeit der Übernahme des Vorläufers von fi. kasva- ja ebenfalls unzulässig und stand somit für die Substitution des *sų gar nicht zur Disposition. Hat es aber die Verbindung auch sonst gegeben, verrin-gert sich die Wahrscheinlichkeit ihres fremden Ursprungs bzw. ihrer Monogenese.

Eine weitere Stütze für diese Metathese glaubt KOIVULEHTO in der Umstellung von ųr zu im Falle von fi. karva ‘Haar’< balt. *gaura- (lit. gaüras) gefunden zu haben. Tatsächlich sind aber Metathesen, an denen eine Liquida beteiligt ist, typologisch merkmallos und besagen überhaupt nichts für *ųs > *sų.

Zusätzliche Evidenz für die vermutete Metathese gibt es mithin nicht. KOIVULEH-TOs Etymologie für kasvaa trifft aber ohnehin schwerlich das Richtige. Die von ihm angesetzte urindogermanische Ausgangsform hat es allem Anschein nach gar nicht gegeben.Die indogermanischen Einzelsprachen zeigen bei dem in Rede stehenden Wort folgende Verteilung von Formen mit und ohne s-Erweiterung:

studien87.jpg

88.

Der Befund spricht mithin für ursprüngliche Schwebeablautvarianten *h2ayg (*h2ey-) *h2yegs- (schwundstufig *h2ugs- -s. SCHINDLER 1972b, 152). Das Germanische würde klar die alte Verteilung, die durch das Arische gestützt wird, reflektieren. Im Baltischen und Lateinischen findet sich die hiervon abweichende Form nur in isolier-ten Bildungen‚was für einen späteren Ausgleich spricht,z.B. im Falle von lit. aukstas ‘hoch’ zwischen einem regelrecht mit Schwundstufe gebildeten -to- Partizip *ukštas und augti.Im Tocharischen ist ebenso Kontamination anzunehmen wie im Griechis-chen, wobei hier entweder mit einer älteren s-haltigen Variante oder einer Entwick-lung auks- < *h2ugs- zu rechnen ist (s. PETERS 1982,15). Es ist also festzuhalten, daß es gerade in dem für das Finnisch-Wolgaische als Lehngeber in Frage kom-mende Indogermanischen (Arisch, Baltisch, Germanisch) keinerlei Evidenz für uridg. *h2aykse/o- ‘wachsen’ gibt!

Wenn fi. kasva- und mordw. kasom aber kein urindo-germanisches *h2aygs-reflek-tieren, dann besagt auch das tscheremissische kuikam ‘wachsen’ nichts, das KOI-VULEHTO auf die schwundstufige Form zurückführen will. Die Ähnlichkeit mit dem finnischen und dem mordwinischen Wort,an deren Zufälligkeit KOIVULEHTO nicht zu glauben vermag, beschränkt sich dann nur auf den Anlaut.

... "

Cedrus_deodara_Manali_2.jpg

Eräs "savupuu" himalajansetri (Cedrus deodara)



*keh₁u (to sway, totter): Dutstanding presence (k), active subject (e), alike / together (h1), passive subject inwards
*keh₂ (greatness > desirable, wish): Outstanding presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2)
*keh₂d (to rob, harm, damage): Outstanding / external presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), loss of conditio
*keh₂i (and): Outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3)


*keh₂id (1. heat,hot): Outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3), loss
*keh₂id (3. damage, limit): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3),

Wrong! these wrods arein reality:

*kʷekʷ = to burn to hard (clay), to cook, to boil, to heaten, lit. kepti, rus. печь [peč´], kreikan πέψις [pepsis] = keittää, lat. coctus = lämmin (ruoka) paistaa, sm. keittää.

kepti = to bake, to roast

Gr. πέσσω [pesso] ‘išvirti, prinokinti’ […]. Ide. kalbose matome du veiksmažodžius, padarytus iš *pekʷ-,reiškiančius ‘virti,nokinti’. Šakninis tematinis praes. skr. pácati, s. sl. pęko, lie. su sprogstamųjų inversija kepù, alb. pjek. Italikų-keltų kalbose *pekʷo- yra perėjęs į *kʷekʷō,iš čia lo.coquō,galų pobi.Antra vertus,praes.vedinys *pekʷ-y- skr. žodyje pácyate, gr. πέσσω. Aoristo atitikmuo pasirodo ἔπεψα, lo. coxī ir skr. konjunktyvas aoristas pákṣat. Čia gretinamos formos gali būti paralelinės darybos: veiksmažodinis būdvardis πεπτός ‘prinokęs’ = lo. coctus, galų poeth ‘šiltas’, lie. keptas. Veiksmo pavadinimas πέψις = skr. pakti-, pákti- f. ‘kepimas’. Šiaip ar taip yra aišku, kad πέπτρια neturi tiesioginio ryšio su lo. coctor (ir dēcoctor) arba skr. paktár- m. Gr. kalboje yra giminiškas πέπων [...]. Dar plg. Pokorny IEW, 798; Ernout-Meillet, žr. coquō; Mayrhofer EWA, žr. pácati.

Šaltinis: Chantraine DEG III, 890


*keh₂i-lo (whole, healthy):outstanding / solid presence (k),active subject (e), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3),
*keh₂ito (forest, uncultivated land): outstanding presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), action (i), group (t),
*keh₂k  (to croak, cracking sound): Outstanding presence (k), active subject (e), pread (h2), confined  limited presence
*keh₂m (wish, desire): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), solid (m)
*keh₂p (1. to grasp): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), take away (p)
*keh₂p (2. garden, piece of land): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), take away (p)
*keh₂p (3. thing in the water): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), take away (p)
*keh₂ro (to like, wish,desire): outstanding / solid presence (k),active subject (e), spread (h2), internal feature mo
*keh₂u (1. to humble,discourage): Dutstanding / solid presence (k),active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject
*keh₂u (2. to howl): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject inwards (uh3)
*keh₂u(d) (separate, cleaved): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject inwards
*keh₂ul (abscess, swelling): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject inwards
*kei(h₂) (to move, set in motion): external presence (k), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3), spread (h2)
*keis (arm, thigh): outstanding presence (k),active subject (e), action outwards (ih3), attached (s´)

*keku (cudgel = nuija): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), confined presence (k), passive subject inwards (uh3)
*kek´ (weasel = kärppä): outstanding presence (k), active subject (e), external presence (k´)
*kel (1. to be elevated, to be prominent): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), up (l)
*kel (2. shell, cup): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), external (l)
*kel  (3. thorny, pricky): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), external / emission (l)
*kelh₂ (to strike): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), emission (l), spread (h2)
*keli (to drive, compel): Dutstanding/solid presence (k),active subject (e), external (l), action outwards (ih3)
*kem (1. to squeeze, compress): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), packed (m)
*kem (2. to disperse, fragment): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), dispersion, fragmentation (m)
*ken (1. young): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n)
*ken (2. to be active): outstanding/solid presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n)
*ke(n)g (hook): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n), degraded presence (g)
*kenk (1. to bind, gird): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n), confined presence (k)
*kenk (2. hunger, thirst): Dutstanding /solid presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n), confined presence (k)
*kenk (3. heel, hock): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), end (n), movement related presence (k)
*ke(n)k (hook): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n), confined presence (k)
*kent  (1. new, fresh): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), complete (n), group / approac" (t)
*kent (2. last): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), end (n), group  approach (t)
*ke(n)tʰ (rag, cloth): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), end (n), internal limit (t-)
*ker/kar (hard): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e) impersonal (a) , external feature (r)
*kerd (1. talent, craft): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), external feature (r), relation to depend
*kerd (2. gird): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), e#ternal feature (r), loss of condition (d)
*kerno (jaw, chin): Solid /protruding presence (k), active subject (e), external feature (r), virtual (no)
*kers (1. to run): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), external movement (r), dispersion / movemen
*kers (2. dirty, dark): internal presence (k), active subject (e), external feature (r), grounded (s´)
*kes (to comb, scrape): protruding presence (k), active subject (e), dispersion out (s)
*ket / kot (dwelling place): outstanding solid presence (k), active subject (e) or object (o), group / approach (t)
*keu (to bend): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), passive subject inwards (uh3)
*k(e)uh₁d (to shout, cry): outstanding presence (k), active subject (e), passive subject inwards (uh3), alike together
*k(e)up (1. to desire): outstanding /solid presence (k), active subject (e), passive subject (u), loss (p)

*k(e)up (2. to boil, cook): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), passive subject (u), loss (p)

*k(e)u' (3. hole): outstanding / solid presence (k), active subject (e), passive subject (u), loss (p)

*kh₂dʰ > *kadʰ (to guard, cover): outstanding presence (k), apart (h2), inside (d-)

*kh₂gʰ > *kagʰ (to catch, seize, fence): Dutstanding presence (k), apart (h2), internal indistinct presence (g-)

*kh₂gloʰ > *kagʰlo  (pebbles, gravel): Dutstanding presence (k), apart (h2), internal indistinct presence (g-), ground

*kh₂ik´(1. hair, comb): outstanding / solid presence (k),spread (h2), action outwards (ih3),  protruding  external pr

*kh₂ik´ (2. to itch, scratch): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3), protruding extern

*kh₂is > *kais (hair): outstanding presence (k), spread (h2), action outwards (ih3), attached (s´)

*kh₂l > *kal (1. handsome): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), external (l)

*kh₂l > *kal (2. hard): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), e#ternal (l)

*kh₂m > *kam  (1.completely solid):Dutstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), solid (m)

*kh₂m > *kam  (2. to bend, curveE): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), dispersion )

*kh₂mp > *kamp (open space): outstanding /solid presence (k), spread (h2), dispersion bodiless (p)     

*kh₂n > *kan  (to sing): outstanding / solid presence (k),spread (h2), complete / sound (n)

*kh₂nt > *kant (corner): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), end (n), group approach (t)

*kh₂pro (he-goat, buck): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), bodiless /take away (p), internal movement

*kh₂p-ut > *kap-ut (head): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), bodiless / loss (p), passive subject (u), gro

*kh₂t > *kat (1. link, chain): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), group approach (t)

*kh₂t > *kat (2. to bear young): outstanding / solid presence (k), spread (h2), group / approach (t)

*kh₂t > *kat (3. fight,battle): outstanding/ solid presence (k),apart (h2),confrontation (t)

*kh₂us > *kaus (fate, lot): outstanding presence (k), spread (h2), passive subject (u), attached (s´)

*kik (jay bird): outstanding presence (k), action (i), hidden presence (k)

*kisteh₂ (basket): Dutstanding presence (k), action (i), attached (s´), advance (t), active subject (e), spread (h2)

*kl (1. stain, spot): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external (l+)

*kl (2. white): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal * emission (l+)

*kl (3. to wander, way, pat"): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * emission (l+)

*kleh₂ (to place, lay down): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), spread (h2)

*kleh₂dʰ-rh₂ (alder): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), spread (h2), inside (d-), intern

*kleh₂u (1. to close): outstanding  solid presence (k), property (l), active subject (e), apart (h2), passive subject in

*kleh₂u (2. nail, peg): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), property (l), active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject

*kleik´ (to squeeze): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), action (i), external presence )

*klem (weak, feeble): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), dispersion, fragmentation )

*kleng (to bend, wind): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), complete (n), degraded / weak

*klenk (to bend, wind): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), complete (n), confined pres

*klep (1. wet,damp):outstanding presence (k),internal (l), active subject (e), bodiless (p)

*klep (2. to hold in arms and/or lap): outstanding presence (k), internal (l), active subject (e), take away (p)

*klg (1. wind around): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external (l+), degraded presence (g)

*klg (2. deception): outstanding /solid presence (k),internal * external (l+), harm/evil (g)

*klg (3. to cry, shout): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal * e#ternal (l+), weak presence (g)

*klh₁ (1. to call): outstanding / solid presence (k), external * internal (l+), together (h2) *klh₂ (to break up, cut, inheritance): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), property internal * external (l+), spread (h2)

*klh₂uo (bald, bare): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external (l+), apart (h2), passive subject (u), object

*klh₃ (1. glue): outstanding / solid presence (k), e#ternal * internal (l+), inwards (h2)

*klh₃ (2. prison, to be captured): outstanding / solid presence (k), external * internal (l+), inwards (h3)

*klh₃ (3. to spin): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external (l+), inwards (h2)

*klk (to cry, shout): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external (l+), confined / limited presence (k)

*klp (jug, cauldron): outstanding presence (k), external * internal (l+), take away (p)

*kneigʷʰ (to strain, exert pressure, bow): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), virtual (n), active subject (e), action (i), i

*knei(h₃)d (to itch, irritate): outstanding / solid presence (k), virtual (n), active subject (e), action (i), inwards (h3),

*kneu (nut): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), start (n), active subject (e), passive subject (u)

*kneug (to growl,whimper): outstanding / solid presence (k),virtual (n),active subject (e), passive subject (u), weak

*knh₂ (nectar * honey): outstanding / solid presence (k), not"ingness (n), spread (h2)

*knm (ham, shin): outstanding / solid presence (k), not"ingness * complete (n+), solid (m)

*kob (to suit, fit, succeed):outstanding / solid presence (k),body / object (o),extension (b)

*koi-lo (miserable, bare, naked): outstanding / solid presence (k), body (o), action outwards (ih3), internal (l), objec

*kois (to cure, care for): outstanding presence (k),body (o),action outwards (i), settled (s´)

*kok´sh₂ (limb, joint): outstanding / solid presence (k), body (o), protruding presence (k´), attached (s´), spread (h2)

*kom (with): outstanding / solid presence (k), object (o), packed (m)

*kop (hoof): outstanding / solid presence (k), object (o), bodiless / loss (p)

*kopso (blackbird): Dutstanding /solid presence (k), object (o), take away (p), dispersion (s), object / body (o)

*koro (war, army): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), body / object (o), external feature (r), body / object (o)

*kost (bone): Solid presence (k), object (o), growth (s´),  group (t)

*kr (1. cherry): Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+)

*kr (2. ordure): Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal  /external feature (r+)

*kr (3. dark color): Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+)

*kr (4. to hang): Outstanding / solid presence (k), external / internal movement (r+)

*kr (5. to scold, punish): Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+)

*kr (6. hoarse sound): Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+)

*krbr (checkered, variegated): Outstanding / solid presence (k), external / internal  feature (r+),  hidden body presenc

*krd (beam):Outstanding solid presence (k),internal * external feature (r+),related to (d)

*kreh₂u (to hide, conceal): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal movement (r), active subject (e), spread (h2),

*krei (1. to act): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)

*krei (2. emission ): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)

*kret (1. to shake): Dutstanding /solid presence (k), internal movement (r), active subject (e), reduction / limit (t)

*kret (2. to hit, beat): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal movement (r), active subject (e), reduction / limit

*kreu (1. to strike, beat): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive subject

*kr(e)u (2. to collapse): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive subject inward

*kr(e)u (3. hoarse sound): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive subject i

*kreudʰ (to shake): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal movement (r), active subject (e), passive subject inwa

*kreuh₂ (raw lesh, thick blood): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive su

*kreup (scab): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive subject (u), bodiless

*kreus (1. to form a crust, to begin to free3e): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e)

*kreus (2. to crus", s"atter): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), active subject (e), passive subject

*kreut (to shake): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal movement (r), active subject (e), passive subject in war

*krg (1. to torture, torment): protruding presence (k), external * internal movement (r+), harm (g)

*krg (2. to croak): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external feature (r+), degraded / weak presence (g)

*krh₁p  (leather, cloth, shoe):  Outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external feature (r+),  alike (h2), take away

*krh₂ (to glorify,  praise aloud): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external feature (r+),  spread (h2)

*krh₂-ti (to bring in): outstanding /solid presence (k), external * internal movement (r+), spread (h2), advance (t),
*krk (1. fish eggs, frogspawn = kutu): protruding presence (k), internal * external movement (r+), internally confined prese
*krk (2. to weave = kutoa): internal presence (k), external / internal movement (r+), internally confined presence (k)
*krk (3. to distort): protruding presence (k), internal / external movement (r+), internally confined presence (k)
*krk (4. to pull in): protruding / external presence (k), external / internal movement (r+), internally confined presence
*krk (5. rooster = kukko): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external feature (r+), internal / conined presence (k)
*krk (6. to jut out a beam): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), internal / confined prese
*krk-sko (arm): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), internal / confined presence (k),
*krk´ (1. to wrinkle =rypistyä, shrivel up = kuihtua): outstanding presence (k), external / internal movement (r+), protruding presence
*krk´ (2. kind of bird): Dutstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), outstanding presence (k´)
*krm (1. onion, garlic): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), dispersion / fragmentation
*krm (2. ash tree = saarni): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), solid (m)
*krm (3. to be tired = olla väsynyt, rest = levätä): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal / external feature (r+), dispersion / fragmentation
*krom (constrained): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature / movement (r), object (o), packed (m)
*krp (cloth, shoe): internal presence (k), external * internal movement (r+), take away (p)
*krt (1. to turn, wind): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external movement (r+), group / approach (t)
*krt (2. cage = häkki): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal * external movement (r+), limit (t)
*krt (3. agglomeration): outstanding / solid presence (k), external * internal movement (r+), group / approact (t)
*krut (breast, belly, protuberance): outstanding / solid presence (k), internal feature (r), passive subject inwards (u
*kseip (to toss, throw): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), active subject (e), action outwards
*kses (to carve = leikta, kovertaa): outstanding/ solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), active subject (e), dispersion / loss (s)
*kseu (1. to shave = ajaa partaa, scratch = raapia): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), active subject (e), passive subje
*kseu (2. to sneeze = aivastaa): outstanding presence (k), out dispersion loss unstable / liquid (s´), active subject (e), pas
*kseubʰ (to shake = ravistaa, totter = huoju(tta)a): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), active subject (e), passive subject
*kseud (to grind = jauhaa, stamp = litistää): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), active subject (e), passive subject
*ksn(e)u (to scrape): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attached (s), start / end (n+), active subject (e), passive
*ksnie (to comb = kammata): outstanding / solid presence (k), settled / attac"ed (s), start / end (n+), action outwards (ih3), action
*ktʰeh₁(i) (to gain, acquire): outstanding / solid presence (k), external advance (t-), active subject (e), union (h2),
*kus (to kiss): outstanding / solid presence (k), passive subject (u), attached (s´)
*kwei (to shine white): outstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), action outwar
*kweid (white): outstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*kweis (bright): outstanding / protruding  presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*kweit (white): outstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3),
*kwelp (1. arch, vault): outstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), external emi
*kwelp (3. to stumble = kompatua): outstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject (w), active subject (e), external / emi
*kwh₂t (to ferment = käydä (mehu), become sour = hapata): outstanding presence (k), passive subject inwards (wh), spread (h2), group
*kwih₁ (to want, wis for): Dutstanding / protruding presence (k), passive subject inwards (wh), action outwards
*k´e / k´i / k´o (this, here, now): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e) or action (i) or object (o)
*k´eh₁-ro (colorful): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), alike (h2), internal feature (r), object (o)
*k´eh₂d (to hate): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), spread (h2), loss of condition (d)
*k´(e)h₂u (to burn): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), spread (h2), passive subject inwards (uh3)
*k´(e)h₃ (to sharpen): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), outwards (h2)
*k´ei (1. to lie, settle): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*k´ei  (2. skin): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*k´ei  (3. to  sharpen): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*k´eibʰ (1. fast, hasty): internally confined / movement related presence (k´), active subject (e), action (i), internal los
*k´eibʰ (2. violent): internally conined / movement related presence (k´), active subject (e), action (i), internal loss (
*k´eigʰ (to strive, hasten): >nternally conined  movement related presence (k), active subject (e), action (i), internal
*k´eip (1. physical limit): internally confined presence (kk), active subject (e), action (i), lack loss of body (p)
*k´eip (3. loss of physical presence): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), action (i), lack, loss of body
*k´eip (3. to wag = huoju(tta)a): Fovement related presence (k´), active subject (e), action (i), lack, loss ofbody (p)
*k´ekʷ (to cack, defecate = paskantaa): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), emission (k0)
k´el (1. to cover, conceal): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), external (l)
k´el (2. tail): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), emission (l)


k´elb (to help): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), emission (l), extension (b)

help (n.)

Old English help (m.), helpe (f.) "assistance, succor," from Proto-Germanic *helpo (source also of Old Norse hjalp, Swedish hjälp, Old Frisian helpe, Dutch hulp, Old High German helfa, German Hilfe), from the source of help (v.).

Use of help as euphemism for "servant" is American English, 1640s, originally in New England. Bartlett (1848) describes it as "The common name in New England for servants, and for the operatives in a cotton or woollen factory."

A domestic servant of American birth, and without negro blood in his or her veins ... is not a servant,but a 'help.' 'Help wanted,' is the common heading of advertise- ments in the North, when servants are required. [Chas. Mackay, "Life and Liberty in America," 1859].

Though help also meant "assistant, helper, supporter" in Middle English (c. 1200).

help (v.)

Old English helpan "help, support, succor; benefit, do good to; cure, amend" (transi-tive, class III strong verb; past tense healp, past participle holpen), from Proto-Ger-manic *helpanan (source also of Old Norse hjalpa, Old Frisian helpa, Middle Dutch and Dutch helpen, Old High German helfan, German helfen), a word of uncertain origin, though perhaps cognate with Lithuanian šelpiu, šelpti "to support, help."

Intransitive sense, "afford aid or assistance," is from early 13c. Recorded as a cry of distress from late 14c. Sense of "serve someone with food at table" (1680s) is trans-lated from French servir "to help, stead, avail," and led to helping "portion of food." Help yourself as an invitation, in reference to food, etc., is from 1894. Related: Helped (c. 1300). The Middle English past participle holpen survives in biblical and U.S. dialectal use.




šel̃pti, žr. kabėti, Pisani 1957, 302

šel̃pti

[Čia pateikiamas ne ištisinis senųjų germ.-bl. leksikos izoglosų sąrašas, todėl jis gali būti žymiai papildytas:] 33. Go. hilpan (germ. help-), s. isl. hjalpa, s. saksų, s. ang. helpan, s.v.a. helfan ‘padėti, pagelbėti’ - s.lie. šelbinòs, lie. šelpiù, šel̃pti (ide. *k̂elb-, k̂elp-) ‘padėti = auttaa; reikalauti = olla tarpeen’.

Чемоданов 1961, 82

šel̃pti

Šelpiù, šel̃pti – sietinas su go. hilpan, s. ang. helpan, s. v. a. helfan. Germanų formos rodo lytį *k̂el-b-, lie. k̂el-p-. [Plg. Meillet, BSL. 21,126 t.,BSL. 29 (1929) 31; Fraenkel LEW II 971 t., ZslPh, 22, 383 t.t. Meillet norėtų auslauto garsų kaitą traktuoti kaip pir- mykštės atematinės *k̂elp-mi- fleksijos simptomą,o Fraenkel remiasi mediju kaip pir- mykščiu garsu (von der Media als ursprünglicher Laut ausgeht) ir mano, kad tam tik-rose verbalinės paradigmos formose perėjimas b >p yra lengvai paaiškinamas (prieš infinityvo galūnę -ti) ir -p- buvęs apibendrintas]. Dalykus komplikuoja pradžios kaita s. lie. gélbu, gélbėti ‘padėti = auttaa [mahd kuurilaissoinnillistuminen: ḱe- > kje- > gje- > ge-,HM]’, iš kur s. pr. galbimai ‘mes padedam’. Mus domina klausimas, ar galima šiam veiksmažodžiui, kuris yra germanų-baltų izoglosa, labialiniam formantui priskirti kauzatyvinę reikšmę. Variantui gélbėti ši prielaida nėra negalima, kadangi jis pagrįs-tai siejamas su galė́ti [plg. E. Hermann, Litauische Studien 1926) 70 t., juo seka Fraenkel, ZslPh. 22, 384 (išn.129), Fraenkel, Lexis 2 (1949) 166 pasitelkė dar kimrų, kornų,bretonų gallaf ‘aš galiu’].Reikšmės raida atrodytų ‘ką nors įgalinti daryti, pada- ryti, kad galėtų’, bet ne ‘jemander etwas können’ [taip E. Hermann, op. cit. (pastaba 130),- Fraenkel op. cit. 384 dar nurodo s. sl. pomošti ‘βοηθεῖν’, pomoštь ‘βοήθειa’ iš mogǫ, mošti ‘galėti’, moštь ‘ἰσχύς, δύναμις’], kas būtų absurdiška. Lieka klausiams, ar šelp- yra ne analogiškas kauzatyvinis darinys [plg. Fraenkel ZslPh. 22, 338б LEW 786 t., plg. ir Specht, Ursprung der idg. Deklination 116, 260].

Solta 1974, 123

Lit. šel̃pti žr. šelbtis, Seebold 1970, 254–255

šelbtis (šelbiasi, -ėsi) = auttaa, tukea

Germ. help-a- ‘pagelbėti, padėti, helfen’ (go. hilpan ‘pagelbėti, padėti’ s.isl. hialpa ‘(iš)gelbėti, išvaduoti’, s.ang. helpan ‘t.p.’, s.fryzų helpa ‘t. p.’, s.saks. helpan, s.v. a. helfan) patikimos etimologijos neturi. Čia svarstytini trys bl. leksemos variantai:

1) s. lie. šelbtis ‘mėginti išsiversti (kuo), auszukommen suchen, kuo nors manytis, ieškoti išeities, sich zu helfen suchen’; ši lytis fonetiškai geriausiai atitinka (*k̑elp-). Anot Frenkelio (LEW, p. 971), radosi iš sinonimo šibtis dėl gelbėti įtakos;

2) lie. šel̃pti (šelpia, -ė) ‘paremti, pagelbėti, skatinti, vystyti, ugdyti, fördern, helfen’ (*k̑elp-). Frenkelis (LEW, p. 971) sako, kad čia turime reikalo su bl. (*k̑elb- žodžio galo varintas;

3) lie. gélbiu, -ėti ‘padėti = auttaa, remti = levätä, šelpti, traukti iš bėdos = vetää köyhyydestä’, s. lie. šis veiksmažodis buvo atematinis. Nykstamąjį šaknies vokalizmo laipsnį regime

lie. gi̇̀lbti (gilbsta,gilbo) ‘ilsėtis = levätä,taisytis = parantua, toipua’.Šios lyties reikšmė yra artimiausia germ. leksemų reikšmei. Frenkelis (LEW, p. 144) sieja lie. galė́ti ‘pajėgti, įstengti’. Germ. leksemų suponuojama prolyte laikytina esanti pamatuota:

1) k̑el-/k̑lei- ‘(pa)lenkti = liittyä; linkti =liittyä, turėti polinkį = omata yhteys, neigen, at-remti, prišlieti, lehnen = nojata’ (Pokorny 552 ir 601). (Plg. lo. cliens ‘baudžiauninkas = maaorja, Höriger = ala(ma)inen’; die Handlungsrichtung wäre jedoch genau entgegengesetzt);

2) kel- ‘(iš)gelbėti, išgabenti (į saugią vietą), (pa)slėpti, apgaubti, apsiausti’ (plg. hel-a), kur taipogi ryškėja reikšmė ‘apsaugoti, apdengti, apginti’ [plg. ‘šalmas; bokšto stogas; kotas (kūjo)’]. Abi prolytės yra nepatikimos.

Šaltinis: Seebold 1970, 254–255

gélbėti, -ėja (-a, -i, -ia, -ti, -sta, -sti), -ėjo (-ė), gelbė́ti, -ė́ja, -ė́jo. ''

(Näemmä kaikki päätteet ja painotukset käyvät, merkitys voi kuitenkin muuttua)

Pr.galbimai ‘padėti’ siejama su lie.gélbėti,anksčiau priklausiusiam atematiniam tipui (gelbsti, gelbt). Stangas mano galėjus egzistuoti pr. *galbt. Jeigu taip buvę iš tiesų, tai šiam idealiai atitiktų lie. praes. *galbti (-e- būtų paaiškinama veiksmažodžio gélbėti kitų formų, siejamų su skéndėti, vértėti ir pan. įtaka). Be rekonstruotų formų, pr. galbimai glaudžiai siejasi su lie. gélbėti (s.lie. gélbti, gélbsti 3. praes.), kurio šaknis turi kitų variantų, plg. gálba = apu, (LKŽ III, 58), pagálba (: pr. pogalbton, gil̃bti ‘sveikti’ (gilbstù; greičiausiai iš galė́ti),la. g’elbêt,g’elbt – iš lie. Įmanoma dar prijungti lie. glė́bti, glóbti, glabóti, la. glêbt, glâbt ‘ginti (gìna) = puolustaa’, ‘gelbėti’; sl. *globiti: le. głobić, s.-kr. згло́бити, slov. glábiti, r. гло́бить(ся) ir pan.; s. ang. clyppan ‘apglėbti’ ir kt. Baltiškų žodžių reikšmės yra pakankamai artimos, ir visi jie yra ide. *glē̆b(h)- tęsiniai.

Топоров ПЯ E–H, 135–136

gélbėti = to help

Remiantis Pokorno rekonstruota ide. šaknimi su a vokalizmu *gal- ar *gʰal-, lie. galė́ti (galia), sl. *golěmъ [ir kt.] ryšys su lie. gélbėti ‘to help’ (taip Fraenkel) fonetiš-kai būtų neįmanomas (ide.prokalbėje nebuvo abliauto e ir a). Kita vertus, Hirto mėgi- nimas gélbėti sieti su glė́bti ‘to embrace’ semantikos ir formos požiūriu dar menkiau įtikinamas. Grįžtant prie sąsajos su lie. galė́ti, galiù, sl. *golěmъ ir kt., manytina, kad lie. gélbėti, gélbu, gélbiu atitinka ide. *g(ʰ)elh-.

Žodžio pradžios g- vietoj lauktino ž- atsirado dėl o abliauto laipsnio formų, plg. lie. galė́ti, pagálba ‘help’, pr. galbimai ‘gelbime’, įtakos. Lie. gélbėti, pagálba ir kt. yra padaryti su sufiksu b, kaip ir lie. (pa)skelbti ‘verkündigen = julkistaa’, paskálba ‘Gerücht = huhu, maine, Gerede = puhe,sanoma,Gemunkel = kuiske’ (:s.v.a. skellan ‘paskelbti, pagarsinti’). Semantinė raida iš ‘galėti, sugebėti’ į ‘padėti’, matoma lie. galė́ti ir gélbėti atveju, yra paliudyta s. sl. mošti, mogǫ ‘galėti’ : pomošti ‘padėti’, pomoštь ‘pagalba’.

Rikov 1995, 131 [2 išn.], 133

https://lexicography.online/etymology/vasmer/%D1%85/%D1%85%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BF

холоп = (sisä)orja

холо́п род. п. -а, холопа́й «холуй», укр.холо́п,блр. холо́п, др.-русск. холопъ, им. п. мн. ч. -и, род. п. мн. ч. -ей (моск. грам. XVI-XVII вв.; см. Соболевский, Лекции 198), русск.-цслав. хлапъ «холоп, раб = orja», ст.-слав. хлапъ δοῦλος, οἰκέτης (Супр.), болг. хла́пе ср. р., хлапа́к «мальчик = poika, kloppi», сербохорв. хла̏п, род. п. хла̏па и хлȃп, словен. hlȃp «болван = tolvana»,чеш.,слвц. сhlар «парень, мужик = nuori naimaton (maalais)mies», польск. сhɫор, в.-луж. khɫор, khɫорс «парень = (poika)mies», н.-луж. kɫорс Праслав. или прарусск. *хоlръ рано по-пало в лтш. kаl̃рs «холоп = kloppi, работник = työmies»; см. М. — Э. 2, 144. Все существующие этимологии недостоверны.

Сравнивали с гот. halbs «полу-, половина = puolikas», собственно «непарный, нечетный = pariton p.» (см. Педерсен, KZ 38, 373 и сл.) или «служитель-евнух = eunukki» (см. Оштир, AfslPh 36,444; Соболевский, РФВ 71, 444); при этом пред- полагалось родство со слав. *хоlkъ и *хоlstъ; против см. Эндзелин, СБЭ 124. Кроме этого, предполагали экспрессивное преобразование формы, родствен-ной лит. šel̃pti (šelpia) «помогать», раšаlра̀ «помощь = apu» (Брюкнер, KZ 51, 235; Погодин, РФВ 32, 270 и сл.; IF Anz. 5, 260) или гот. hilpan «помогать» (Корш, Сб. Потанину 537); против см. Эндзелин, там же (42).

[HM: -i-a-aspetivaihtelu osoittaa, että sanat hilp ja halb ovat tulleet germaaniseen goottiinkin kantabaltin kautta, toisin sanoen leinoina. Ne on kuitenkin lainattu äänteellisesti kuin ne olisivat tuleet PIE:sta.]

Нужно отклонить сравнение с др.-инд.jálpati «говорит неразборчиво, бормочет = mumista», jālmás «отверженный, негодяй = konna», «подлый» (Махек, «Slavia», 16, 195). Сближалось также с лит. sil̃pti (sil̃psta) «слабнуть = heiketä», sil̃pnas «слабый = heikko» (Маценауэр, LF 7, 220; против см. Бернекер I, 394), далее — с нем. Schalk «плут, шут» (Брюкнер 180) или греч. σκόλοψ [skolop] «острый кол = terävä kulma» (Лёвенталь, AfslPh 37, 386).

Сомнительно также предположение о заимствовании из нижнерейнск. halfe «испольщик = (puolen sadon) vuokraviljelijä» (И. Шмидт, Vok. 2, 139 и сл.; против см. Бернекер, там же; Брюкнер, KZ 48, 194).

Недостоверно родство с па́холок = lellikki, (laiska) poika, и хо́лить = helliä, lelliä (см.); ср. Соболевский, там же; Младенов 669; Лер-Сплавинский, JР 24, 43. См. хлап [См. еще Яначек, «Slavia», 24, 1955, стр. 2; Мошинский. Zasiąg, стр. 244; Ондруш, Sborník filozof. fakulty Univerzity Komensk., 10, 1958, стр, 88. Менгес вы-сказывает предположение, что это слово заимств. из тюрк. формы, предшест-вующей тур. хаlfа «подручный, раб = orja», араб. происхождения; см. UAJb., 31, 1959, стр. 187 и сл. — Т.]


silpnas = heikko, voimaton, vetelä

Žodžiai, žymintys sąvoką silpnas daugelyje kalbų išreiškiami kaip ‘ne + stiprus, galin-gas’ (lo. invalidus, neg. iš validus ‘stiprus’; la. nestiprs, neg. iš stiprs ir t. t.); kitais at-vejais jie dažniausiai siejami su sąvokomis: ‘laisvas’, ‘palaidas’, ‘suglebęs’, ‘lankstus, nuolaidus’, ‘nuolaidus, minkštas’ ir t. t. Lie. silpnas (:silpti) etimologija neaiški.

Buck 1949, 299

silpnas

(s)lā̆p-, lē̆p-, (s)lō̆p-, sl̥p- ‘suglebus nukarti = roikkua velttona’ (Walde-Pokorny II 432, Pokorny 656, Fraenkel 358, 385 t.): ol. laffaard ‘mulkis’, su ol. laf ‘suglebęs, kvailas = tyhmä’; s. isl. lafa ‘tabaluoti, kabėti’, slafask ‘nusilpti’, v. v. a. part. erlaben ‘nusilpęs’, šveicarų labe ‘arklys nulėpausis’, v. v. a. luof ‘liurbis’; su germ. [48] bb v. v. a. lappe […] ir n. v. a. Lapp, läppisch, šv. dial. labba ‘kabinti’, ž. v. labbe ‘(atvėpus) lūpa’ ir t. t.;

lie. lė̃pti (lepsta, lepo) ‘schlaff werden, welken…’, lė́pa ‘nevikrus žmogus’, lė́pis ‘žiop-lys’, lė̃pinti ‘glebti’, lėp(a)aũsis,lẽpšė, -is ‘liurbis,išglebėlis’, la. ļȩpȩns ‘silpnas’, lȩ̂ps ‘nerangus’, lȩ̂pa ‘lėtai,nevikriai einantis žmogus = hittasti kävelevä ihminen’, ļȩ̄pausis, ļȩpàusis, lȩpausis ‘lėpausis’ (Fraenkel 358 po lèpti ‘verzältet … werden’; plg. Walde-Pokorny II 430, Pokorny IEW 678 prie lep- ‘valgyti = syödä, lyödä, lupti = kuoria…’), toliau lie. lepetóti ‘schwerfällig laufen, trumpeln’, la. ļȩpa ‘ausies lezgelis, snukis, ka-muolys…’ […], lepatât, -uôt ‘netvirtai eiti’ (Fraenkel 339 t. po lãpas (Pflanzen) blatt = lehti’); lie. sil̃pnas, si̇̀lpnas ‘schwach’ ir t. t. < *sl̥p-.

Merlingen 1978, 48–49

half 

Old English half, halb (Mercian), healf (W. Saxon) "side, part", not necessarily of equal division (original sense preserved in behalf), from Proto-Germanic *halba- "something divided" (source also of Old Saxon halba, Old Norse halfr, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch half, German halb, Gothic halbs "half"), a word of no certain etymology.

[HM: Baltissa tuo kalbas ym. on enempikin "kahdesta osasta yhdistetty" kuin "jokin jaettu"! Sana tulee sieltä.]


Perhaps from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut," or perhaps a substratum word. Noun, adjective, and adverb all were in Old English.


[HM: *s-kel- ei ole leikata, vaan nostaa irti, vaikka lantun maasta.

Used also in Old English phrases, as in modern German, to mean "one half unit less than," for example þridda healf "two and a half," literally "half third." The construction in two and a half, etc., is first recorded c. 1200. Of time, in half past ten, etc., first at-tested 1750; in Scottish,the half often is prefixed to the following hour (as in German, halb elf = "ten thirty").

To go off half-cocked in the figurative sense "speak or act too hastily" (1833) is in allusion to firearms going off prematurely;half-cocked in a literal sense "with the cock lifted to the first catch,at which position the trigger does not act" is recorded by 1750. In 1770 it was noted as a synonym for "drunk."

***


*k´em (1. young or female animal * hornless animal): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), dispersion
*ḱem (3. prop, saft, pole): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), solid packed (m)
*ḱemer (armored animal): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), solid packed (m), active subject (e),
*ḱemero (poisonous cathartic plant): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), dispersion fragmentation
*ḱemu (toil, trouble): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), dispersion fragmentation (m), passive su
*ḱen (1. emptiness): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), end (n)
*ḱen (2. to rise, ascend): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), complete (n)
*ḱen-i (ash, dust): nternally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), end (n), action outwards (ih3)
*ḱe(n)k / *ḱh₂(n)k > *ḱa(n)k (1. branch): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e) or spread (h2), compl
*ḱe(n)k / *ḱh₂(n)k > *ḱa(n)k (3. to get thin): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e) or spread (h2), co
*ḱe(n)k / *ḱh₂(n)k > *ḱa(n)k (3. to hang): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e) or spread (h2), comp
*ḱent (1. to stab, pierce): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), complete (n), approach group (t)
*ḱent (2. center): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), complete (n), approach group (t)
*ḱer (liaison, tie, relationship): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), external feature (r)
*ḱerdʰ (herd, flock, row, line): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), external feature (r), internal depe
*ḱer(h₂) (horn): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), external  feature (r), spread (h2)
*ḱerh₃ (to feed): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), external feature (r), inwards (h2)
*ḱer(s) (hair): internally conined presence (k´), active subject (e), e#ternal feature (r), attached (s´)
*ḱes (to cut): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), segmentation  dispersion (s)
*ḱet / kat (anger): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e) or impersonal (a), confrontation (t)
*ḱeu (to show up / to shine, be bright): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject inwards
*ḱeub (thorn): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject (u), material extension (b)
*ḱeubʰ (to embellish): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject (u), inwards addition (b-)
*ḱeudʰ (to purify): internally confined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject (u), internal dependence (d-)
*ḱ(e)uḱ (to whirl, mix together): internally conined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject inwards (uh3),
*ḱewk (1. white, to glow): internal con ined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject (w), movement related
*ḱewk (3. pain, suffering): internal confined presence (k´), active subject (e), passive subject (w), limited internal pre
*ḱh₁u-er (northern wind): internally confined presence (k´), together (h2) passive subject (u), active subject (e), external
*ḱh₂d > *ḱad (1. to fall): internally confined presence (k´), spread (h2), loss of condition (d)
ḱh₂d > *ḱad (3. distinguished): internally confined presence (k´), spread (h2), related to (d)
*ḱh₂k > *ḱak (1. to enable): internally confined presence (k´), spread (h2), internal  movement related presence (k)
*ḱh₂k > *ḱak (3. to jump): internally conined presence (k´), spread (h2), internal movement  related presence (k)
*ḱh₂s > *ḱas / ḱus (to show, teach): internally confined presence (k´), spread (h2) or passive subject (u), expansion
*ḱh₂s > *ḱas (1. gray): internally conined presence (k´), spread (h´), dispersion 
*ḱh₂s > *ḱas  (2. hare): internally conined presence (k´), spread (h´), out (s)
*ḱih₃k (drizzle = tihkua): Fovement related presence (k), action (i), downwards (h2), limited presence (k)
*ḱik (belt, strap): Movement related presence (k´), action (i), confined presence (k)
*ḱi-ḱerh₃ (chick; pea): internally conined presence (k´), action outwards (ih2), internally confined presence (ḱ), acti
*ḱipʰ (root, flexible twig): internally confined presence (k´), action outwards (ih2), internal lack (p-)
*ḱleh₁ (warm): internally confined presence (k´), internal (l), active subject (e), together (h2)
*ḱleh₂ (hidden, clandestine): internally confined presence (k´), internal (l), active subject (e), spread (h2)
*ḱlei (1. to lean): internally confined presence (k´), ground (l), active subject (e), action outwards (ih3)
*ḱlei (2. ownership): internally confined presence (k´), property (l), active subject (e), action outwards (i"&)
*ḱlep (to steal): internally confined presence (k´), property , internal (l), active subject (e), bodiless / take away (p)
*ḱleuh₃ (1. to clean, rinse): internally conined presence (k´), internal (l), active subject (e), passive subject (u), outw
*ḱleuh₃ (2. fip, buttock): internally confined presence (kk), internal (l), active subject (e), passive subject (u), outwar
*ḱlew  (to hear): internally conined presence (k´), internal (l), active subject (e), passive subject inwards (w"&)
*ḱlh₁ (to deceive, enthrall): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external (l+), alike (h2)
*ḱneid (nit): internally confine/ hidden presence (kk´), small (n), passive subject (e), action (i), loss of condition (d)
*ḱolh₂mo (stalk, stem, straw): internally conined presence (k´), object (o), external (l), spread (h2), weak object (mo
*ḱonk (to doubt, vacillate): internally confined presence (k´),object (o), complete (n), internal / limited presence (k)
*ḱonkh₃os (conch, shell): internally confined presence (k´), object (o), complete (n), internal / limited presence (k),
*ḱor(h₂) (crow, raven): internally confined presence (k´), body (o), external feature (r), spread (h2)
*ḱormo (harm): internally confined presence (k´), object (o), external feature (r),bad  dispersion  fragmentation (
*ḱormon (weasel): internally confined presence (k´), object (o), external feature (r), bad / dispersion (m), object (o),
*ḱouh₃ (hollow): internally confined presence (k´), object (o), passive subject (u), outwards (h3)
*ḱoqno (grass): internally confined presence (k´), body (o), action outwards (yh3), small (no)
*ḱr (1. dark color): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external feature (r+)
*ḱr (3. hoarse sound): internally confined presence (k´),internal /external feature (r+)
*ḱrbʰ (1. coal): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external feature (r+), internal loss (p-)
*ḱrbʰ (3. to entrust): internally confined presence (k´), external * internal movement (r+), inwards addition (b-)
*ḱrd (heart): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external movement (r+), dependence (d)
*ḱreh₂ (to mix): internally confined presence (k´), internal movement (r), active subject (e), spread (h2)
*ḱreih₁ (to appear,show forth): internally confined presence (k´), internal feature (r),active subject (e), action outw
*ḱrh₂ (to harm, break): internally confined presence (k´), internal / external feature (r+), spread (h2)
*ḱrh₃ (to make grow): internally confined presence (k´), internal / external movement (r+), outwards (h3)
*ḱrkeh₂ (grit, gravel): internally confined presence (k´), internal / external feature (r+), solid /external presence (k),
*ḱrm (to burn): internally confined presence (k´), internal / eternal movement (r+),dispersion  fragmentation (m)
*ḱrmbʰ (to entrust): internally confined presence (k´), external / internal movement (r+), solid (m), inwards additio
*ḱrmno (corrosive liquid): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external movement (r+), dispersion (m), smal
*ḱrp (1. body): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external movement (r+), loss of body (p)
*ḱrp (2. to crackle, rattle): internally confined presence (k´), internal * external movement (r+), loss of body (p)
*ḱrp (3. roof): internally confined presence (k´), external * internal movement (r+), take away (p)
*ḱrus (leg, shank): internally confined presence (k´), internal feature (r), passive
*ḱseh₁-ro (dry): internally confined presence (k´),solid (s),active subject (e),alike (h2), internal feature (r), object(
*ḱseh₂ (to burn):internally confined presence (k´),loss/dispersion (s´),active subject (e), spread (h3)
*ḱtʰei (to settle): internally confined presence (k´), external advance / evolution (t-), active subject (e), action outward
*ḱwen (to celebrate, saint): internally confined presence (k´), passive subject (w), active subject (e), complete (n)
*ḱwendʰ-ro (herbal medicine): internally confined presence (k´), passive subject (wh3), active subject (e), complete
*ḱwe(n)k (1. to gape): internally confined presence (k´), passive subject (wh3), active subject (e), complete (n), confine
*ḱwe(n)k (2. branch): internally confined presence (k´), passive subject (wh3), active subject (e), complete (n), confine
*ḱwes  (to pant, puff): Fovement related presence (k´), passive subject inwards (wh3), active subject (e), dispersion (
*ḱwon (dog): internally conined presence (k´), passive subject (wh3), object /body (o), complete (n)
*kʷe (and): Additional body presence (k0), active subject (e)
*kʷe / kʷei / kʷo (who, that, when, what, which): Bdditional body presence (k0), active subject (e) or active subj
*kʷed (to drill, bore, sharpen): ?assive e#ternal presence inwards (k0), active subject (e), los of condition (d)
*kʷeh₁ (to observe with respect): passive external presence (k0),active subject (e),alike together (h2)
*kʷ(e)h₂s (to cough): passive external presence inwards (k0), active subject (e), spread (h2), dispersion (s)
*kʷei (1. to build, make, pile up): ?assive e#ternal presence (k0), active subject (e), action upwards / outwards (ih3)
*kʷei (2. to pay attention to): ?assive e#ternal presence (k0), active subject (e), action outwards (i"&)
*kʷeḱ (to show, appear, see, seem): ?assive e#ternal presence (k0), active subject (e), outstanding / external presen
*kʷel (1. far a way): passive external presence (k0), active subject (e), external (l)
*kʷel (2. crowd, herd, swarm): Accumulated body presence (k0), active subject (e), external (l)
*kʷelh₁ (to go round): Bdditional body presence (k0), active subject (e), e#ternal  emission (l), toget"er (h2)

*kʷem (to swallow, gulp, sip): passive external presence inwards (k0), active subject (e), packed (m)
*kʷene (particle for uncertainty, generalization): Bccumulated body presence (k0), active subject (e), complete / en
*kʷentʰ (to suffer, endure): passive external presence inwards (k0), active subject (e), complete (n), internal confro
*kʷer (pot, dish): Accumulated body presence (k0),active subject (e), external feature (r)
*kʷetuor (four): Bdditional body presence (k0), active subject (e), advance / extension (t), passive subject (u), body
*(kʷ)(h₂)wep (to strew, throw out): Bccumulated body presence (k0), spread (h2), passive subject (w), active subje
*kʷieh₁ (quiet): accumulated body presence (k0), action (i), active subject (e), together (h2)
*kʷrei (to buy): additional / accumulated body presence (k0), internal feature (r), active subject (e), action upward
*kʷrh₁ (to increase): Additional / accumulated body presence (k0), internal / external movement (r+), alike (h2)
*kʷrmi (grub, maggot, worm): accumulated body presence (k0), internal/external movement  (r+), dispersion (m),
*kʷrp (to turn, wind): additional / accumulated body presence (k0), internal * external feature (r+), take away (p)
*kʷrs (trees, small wood): accumulated body presence (k0),internal * external feature (r+), attached  settled  gro
*kʷrmu (to chew, grind): Bdditional body presence (k0), external * internal movement (r+), passive subject inwards (
*kʷsep (dark): accumulated body presence (k0), settled (s), active subject (e), bodiless (p)
*kʷtʰei (to destroy, perish): accumulated body presence (k0), external loss of condition (t-), active subject (e) actiosubject (u), attaced  expansion