Fields on ollut Obaman kannattaja ja myös neuvonantaja asemastaan johtuen virkavastuuulisen (toisin kuin USA:n yliopistot) Liittovaltion Terveysinstituutin kehitysneurofysiologian laitoksen johtajana.


Neuroscientist: Donald Trump's meteoric rise can be explained by 4 basic human instincts

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Donald Trump.

Donald Trump's ascent from wealthy political outsider to Republican presidential nominee has confounded many Americans, as well as the political establishment.

But a neuroscientist says Trump's popularity can be explained by how he triggers certain emotions - anger, fear, and aggression - in the "fear center," which is part of the limbic system in people's brains.

"We have the same brain we had 100,000 years ago when we were living on the plains of Africa," R.Douglas Fields,neuroscientist and author of "Why We Snap," told Business Insider. "These defensive triggers exist for a good purpose but politicians are pushing on them to motivate people to do what they want."

Widespread modern fears - of terrorism, war, and gun violence - as well as economic uncertainty make people even more responsive these triggers.

Fields says Trump uses four main human instincts to get people's attention:

1. Being part of a tribe

"Any social animal is dependent on its group and will defend the group," Fields said. "We live only because we're part of a society."

Trump's at-times inflammatory rhetoric toward minority groups elicits tribal "them vs. us" instincts in the human brain. When people are told there is a threat to their tribe, their brain automatically tells them to defend it.

Fields says that many violent criminals are acting out of this type of "tribe" mentality. For instance, young people who don't have a stable family or community are more likely to join gangs, where they find some sense of belonging. The gangs then lash out at opposing tribes.

donald trump supporters

Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump speaks at a campaign event in Springfield, Illinois, November 9, 2015.

2. Threat to environment

Humans are fiercely territorial because "protecting family and home are basic instincts needed for survival," Fields says.

Trump's comments on immigrants play into this instinct, according to Fields.

Consider what Trump said at his presidential announcement in June 2015:

"When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending the best. They're not sending you…they're sending people that have lots of problems and they're bringing those problems with us. They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists. And some, I assume, are good people."

Fields says that by portraying immigrants as dangerous threats, Trump is inciting an-ger in people's brains.Saying he will build a wall is an attempt to protect that territory.

"Think of a cat: It might be friendly, but if you walk up to its food dish, he will snap," Fields said. "He's wired like many of us are to protect our resources."

When a human witnesses a trespasser, often his or her first reaction will be to turn violent.

build the wall trump supporter

A supporter of Republican Presidential candidate Donald Trump stands across the street from a protest held by a number of Latino organizations outside of NBC Studios on November 7, 2015, in New York City.

3. Insults

Politicians have long used insults to get people fired up and on their side.

Trump's trademark use of monikers like "Crooked Hillary" (for Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton) and "Little Marco" (for former GOP primary rival and Sen. Marco Rubio) are meant to incite rage in his supporters.

"As a social species, we are dependent on rank in society," Fields said. "Rank, especially among males, is established through aggression."

Because people have stopped physically dueling over a disagreement, verbal sparring has taken its place.

"Trump's insults get people to rally with him," Fields said. "It's his mechanism of engaging."

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Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump shows off the size of his hands as rivals Marco Rubio, left, and Ted Cruz, right, look on at the start of the Republican presidential-candidate debate in Detroit, Michigan, March 3, 2016.

4. Life-or-death situations

Talking about life-or-death situations elicits an emotional response in most people.

"Almost anyone will defend themselves in what is perceived as a life-or-death attack," according to Fields.

In an article for The Daily Beast, Fields noted that the word "kill" was used 53 times during the December 15 Republican primary debate. This language was not used at all during previous GOP debates.

Here's a sampling:

"Ted Cruz: '…we will hunt down andkillthe terrorists.' Donald Trump: 'These are people that want tokillus…' Trump also advocates killing family members of ISIS terrorists. Lindsay Graham: 'They're trying to come here tokillus all…' Mike Huckabee: 'We have tokillsome terrorists andkillevery one of them….'"

Fields has a tip for voters who want to make rational decisions.

"Whenever you feel angry, you have to ask yourself if you're being manipulated," Fields said. "Let the moment pass and ask yourself if aggression or violence is really the right way to fix a situation."


Myös Hillarya sivuava Fieldsin kirjoitus löytyy. Hänestä hän ei ainakaan meedian tieten ole koskaan ennen sanonut missään tavuakaan eikä esiintynyt yhteisissä julkaisuissa.

Uskon siis hänen kuitenkin kannattavan Trumpia.



The Three Causes of Fainting

Hillary Clinton fainting at the 9/11 memorial this weekend has raised concern and speculation over possible causes. There are three causes of fainting.

Hillary_Clinton          


Fainting is the sudden and temporary loss of consciousness, and consciousness arises from neural activity in the cerebral cortex. Anything that disrupts neural activity in the cerebral cortex can cause loss of consciousness.

The most common cause of fainting is insufficient blood flow to the brain. Although the human brain comprises only 5% of the body’s weight,it consumes 20% of the bo- dy’s energy. Vigorous and precisely regulated flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain is essential to fuel the metabolism of neurons that is required to generate electrical activity. Anything that disrupts cardiac function can cause fainting, notably a sudden drop in blood pressure. Since blood pressure must be regulated precisely for the complex demands that are placed on the body, many different things can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure. These include physiological factors, blood loss from trauma, and emotional state.

Physiological shock causes a severe drop in blood pressure and rapid shallow heart- beat. Shock is the body’s first response to traumatic injury and the response is trig-gered by the autonomic nervous system. People often lose consciousness from trau-matic injuries, and this physiological shock response is believed to be a mechanism to reduce blood loss. It would not take long to pump the body dry of blood through a serious wound if the heart was pounding wildly. It takes even less time for this to happen in a woman’s body, because she has 5-8 pints of blood compared to 8-10 pints of blood in a man’s body. No wonder females can be more prone to fainting.

Fainting from an emotional shock is iconic, especially for females. Fear and other stressful emotional states that provoke a similar shock response in the cardiovascu-lar system that occurs after traumatic injury will cause fainting. Some people faint at the sight of blood,for example.This is believed to be in part a genetically predisposed mechanism that may have had survival value for our ancestors. Those people who had a hair-trigger response to activating this last-ditch safety mechanism to limit blood loss from trauma survived in prehistoric times long before medical first responders existed. Even seeing blood loss or seeing a hypodermic needle causing penetrating “injury” to another person can trigger fainting in these people.

If there is not sufficient oxygen in the blood, a person can faint even if blood flow to the brain is adequate. Free divers who compete in breath-holding contests skirt the deadly threshold of losing conscious ess and drowning. This happened recently to competitive free diver Natalia Molchanova. Impaired lung function or insufficient oxy-gen in the atmosphere will cause a loss of consciousness. High altitude pilots and mountaineers,for example,are at risk of hypoxia-induced fainting. However, anything that impairs the delivery of oxygen to red blood cells can result in fainting. Inhaling carbon monoxide, which impairs the ability of hemoglobin to bind oxygen, will induce fainting very quickly.

The third cause of fainting is disruption of neuronal function in the cerebral cortex. Toxins,such as alcohol,or anesthetics, which suppress normal electrical activity in the cerebral cortex,can induce a sudden loss of consciousness. Likewise, inadequate supply of glucose to fuel the energy demands of neurons will do it. Epilepsy and sei-zure are caused by wildly uncontrolled firing of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In this abnormal state, consciousness can be lost, just as we lose consciousness when our cortical activity becomes suppressed in sleep.

Fainting can be a sign of many different medical issues in the brain and body, but it also can and does happen in perfectly normal or even especially fit individuals. For example, very fit athletes who have low resting heartrates can be prone to fainting upon suddenly rising from a seated position (called orthostatic hypotension). While such an athlete sits peacefully resting in a chair, his or her resting heartrate and blood pressure drop even further and blood pools in their legs. No problem so long as the athlete remains seated and resting quietly, but upon standing suddenly they can become light-headed because the body must suddenly pump blood several feet higher to the elevated head.With all the blood pooled in the legs and the heart ticking along slowly at rest there is not enough blood flow to the brain upon standing. The blood “drains” from their head as they jump up and they can faint.

I know this because it happened to me on an airplane.After extensive neurological tests were negative, and cardiovascular tests (thankfully) showed my fitness was in the range of elite athletes, the doctor dismissed my fainting on an overnight trans-atlantic flight as the expected response of the body to being cramped in the middle seat at high altitude and at sleep, just before I was awakened and stood up quickly. Dehydration, which is common in airline travel due to the dry air in the aircraft cabin and the difficulty of ob- taining water,thickens the blood and this will increased the chances of fainting.So when flying through the “friendly” skies in the coach cabin, be sure to hydrate, avoid alcohol, move your legs to keep the blood flowing, take short walking breaks, and wear comp- ression socks to squeeze blood out of your lower limbs to prevent it from pooling down there where it is of no use to your brain. Even jet fighter pilots rely on compression suits to help prevent fainting.

You don’t have to be on an airplane for this to happen;even soldiers,who are among the most fit of all, faint when forced to stand at attention in the hot sun too long and blood pools in their lower extremities leaving their brain gasping. Fainting, if it is a graceful wilting to the ground rather than a collapse that may cause injury, puts the body in a horizontal position and instantly cures the problem. Fainting hits the “reset button.” At the same time, any injury to blood flow inside the brain as a result of trau-ma or malformation of blood vessels or damage to neurons from disease or injury can cause loss of consciousness.

First published on BrainFacts.org  

http://blog.brainfacts.org/2016/09/the-three-causes-of-fainting/#.V...


 
... The moment passed slowly like an unwelcome odor. ... ”
 
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Trump paljastaa haistapaskantiedefirmojen itseään vastaan suunnatun salalliton:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/donald-trump-google-conspiracy_...


Donald Trump Has A New Conspiracy Theory. This One Involves Google.

It’s kind of out there.


" R. Douglas Fields, Contributor

Inside Boehner’s Brain: A Neuroscience Perspective

10/07/2013 12:04 pm ET Updated Jan 23, 2014

Many people,I’ve heard talk,wonder what’s going on inside Republican speaker John Boehner’s brain.For cognitive neuroscientists,Boehner’s brain is a case study. At the same time, others are frustrated with Democrat Harry Reid. The Senate Majority lea-der needs to take a tip from our founding fathers. Many of the intellectual giants who founded our democracy were both statesmen and scientists, and they applied the latest in scientific knowledge of their day to advantage in governing. The acoustics of the House of Representatives, now Statuary Hall, allowed John Quincy Adams and his comrades to eavesdrop on other members of congress conversing in whispers on the opposite side of the parabolic-shaped room. Senator Reid, in stark contrast, is still applying ancient techniques used when senators wore togas — reason and argument — and we all know how badly that turned out.

The search for a path to compromise can be found in the latest research on the neu-robiological basis of social behavior. Consider this new finding just published in the journal Brain Research. Oxytocin, a peptide produced in the hypothalamus of the brain and known to cement the strong bond between mother and child at birth, has been found to promote compromise in rivaling groups! This new research suggests that Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi could single-handedly end the Washington dead-lock by spritzing a bit of oxytocin in her perfume and wafting it throughout the halls of congress.One can only imagine the loving effect this hormone would have on Senate Republican Ted Cruz,suddenly overwhelmed with an irresistible urge to bond with his colleagues,fawning for a cozy embrace like a babe cuddling in its mother’s arms.And it is so simple! No stealthy spiking the opponent’s coffee (or third martini at lunch) would be required, oxytocin works when it is inhaled through the nasal passages as an odorless vapor.

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Kongressiedustajat Nancy Pelosi (nyt 2019 puheenjohtaja) ja John F. Kennedy.

Research shows that oxytocin stimulates empathy, an emotion that does not seem to thrive insight the Washington beltway. Functional brain imaging shows the inferior frontal gyrus of the cerebral cortex revving up in women hearing a crying infant when exposed to intranasal oxytocin, and fathers given oxytocin become less hostile. The hormone promotes benevolence, generosity, empathy, and it breaks down clans among animals. When given oxytocin rather than a placebo, humans engage more in self-sacrifice for the good of the group.

Interestingly, this new study finds that oxytocin does not make a person blindly loving toward everyone - in competitive situations the positive effects of oxytocin are gene-rated only within one’s perceived in-group.Thus,this hormone increases the cohe-siveness and social conformity within groups. Keeping this in mind, Pelosi need only walk among her Republican colleagues exuding the miracle compound to help that shattered political party meld with its Tea Party fringe and work together as one. “We conclude that oxytocin sensitizes humans to the group membership of their interac-tion partner, rendering them relatively more benevolent and less competitive towards those seen as belonging to their own group,” the researchers conclude. Taken together, it stands to reason that oxytocin is just the prescription needed today in congress.

But back to Boehner’s brain. Clearly the man is conflicted. Torn from limb to limb by competing factions and struggling to make monumental decisions as he struggles to broker compromise among factions holding incompatible ideals of what a govern-ment of, by, and for the people is — or should be. Here again the latest research in neuroscience shows us what is going on in the embattled Speaker’s brain at this minute.

In the past only philosophers or psychiatrists could speculate on how the human brain grapples with conflicting cognitive processes and maintains of self-control, but today functional brain imaging reveals the unconscious process by which the brain resolves internal conflicts as clearly as a real-time traffic report on Google Maps. A new study shows that mental conflict arising from sustaining incompatible intentions in the mind is consistently related to increased neural activity in the left post-central gyrus of the cerebral cortex.This bit of gray matter must be smoking in the Speaker’s brain.

Studies of the neuroscience of human cooperation show that people are willing to in-cur personal costs to punish others who violate what they perceive as social norms. Using a combination of behavioral, pharmacological and neuroimaging techniques, researchers reported this year in the Journal of Neuroscience that manipulating the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain alters costly punishment decisions, (shutting down the government?) by modulating responses to fairness and retaliation in a part of the brain called the striatum. Serotonin enhances fairness; inhibits retaliation, lo-wers the threshold for reactive aggression, and facilitates the harmonious social in-teractions and promotes cooperative social exchange by modulating the computation of social value, the authors conclude in their paper.

Another study published in the October 4, 2013 edition of the journal Science shows a harmless way to manipulate the newly discovered brain circuits that make us follow social norms — transcranial stimulation applied to activate circuits in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC). A simple electrode stitched into the brim of a Washington Wizard’s baseball cap would do the trick.Care need be taken to ensure that the pola- rity is hooked up correctly, because a positive voltage stimulates the rLPFC, promo-ting generosity and compliance with social norms, but a negative voltage would have exactly the opposite effect.

Finally, there’s the issue of another rather well-known hormone: testosterone. A new paper shows that, in addition to all the other things this hormone is famous and infa-mous for doing to the brain and body, testosterone administration modulates moral judgments involving the interplay of emotions and social interactions. Now there is no hard evidence that this new finding can be applied to any of the male members of congress,but it is clear that most of them are rather senior and thus might be inclined to seek some pharmacological assistance for, well, I’m just saying it is a possibility to consider. What’s interesting from this study is that the effect of testosterone on ma-king moral judgments can be gleaned from a handshake. That’s because the relative ratio of the length second to fourth digits of the hand report rather precisely how much testosterone the person was exposed to as a fetus in the womb - the so-called 2D:4D ratio. This measure of testosterone exposure in the uterus works for both males and females. The study finds that people who showed an increase in utilitarian judgments following testosterone administration have a significantly higher 2D:4D ratio, while subjects whose judgments were more related to duty, obligation, or rules, had a lower 2D:4D ratio. “Sex steroids play a crucial role of the activational effects of hormones on moral reasoning later in life,” the researchers conclude.

So watch the situation in Washington closely. Let’s see if Pelosi applies more than the usual perfume and saunters through the Republican ranks with a sly smile on her face. Look for the Speaker to be donning a baseball cap and cracking a pleasantly complacent smile.

As the statesmen all grasp each other’s hands in the ubiquitous handshakes, note if they cast their eyes down to gauge the length of their partner’s second and fourth finger. Meanwhile, as one of the many furloughed government scientists whose re-search has collapsed under the present impasse,some of it to never recover,I’ll keep looking for creative ways to apply my knowledge of neuroscience. Humor helps, but the reality of what is happening is tragic.

References
Crockett, M.J. et al., (2013) Serotonin modulates striatal responses to fairness and retaliation in humans. J. Neurosci. 33: 3505-13.

Fields, R.D. (2013) Brain stimulation can control compliance with social norms. Scientific American online.

Gray, J.R., et al., (2013) Neural correlates of the essence of conscious conflict: fMRI of sustaining incompatible intentions. Exp. Brain Res. 229: 453-65.

Montoya, E.R. et al., (2013) Testosterone administration modulates moral judgments depending on second-to-fourth digit ratio. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 1362-69.

Ruff, C.C. et al., (2013) Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation. Science 10.1126/science.1241399 in advance of print.