" Itämeren rannoilta löytyi tuhansien vuosien takaisten kauppapaikkojen ketju

Haudoiksi luullut kiviladelmat olivatkin jokisuiden kauppasatamia, joissa etelästä tuotu pronssi vaihtoi omistajaa, sanoo ruotsalaistutkija.

Kansainvälinen kaupankäynti ei ole uusi keksintö. Sen osattiin jo kauan ennen kuin oli valtioitakaan, ja pronssikaudella 3000 vuotta sitten metalliesineiden kauppa suo-rastaan räjähti Itämeren alueella. Esinelöytöjen perusteella pronssin tuonnista ete-lästä pohjoiseen on tiedetty pitkään, mutta nyt ruotsalaistutkija sanoo jäljittäneensä myös kauppapaikat.

Pronssikauden keskivaiheilla noin vuonna 1000 ennen ajanlaskumme alkua Itäme-ren rannoilla yleistyivät sekä pronssiesineet, että laivan muotoon asetellut kiviraken- nelmat. Tällaisia latomuksia löytyy kaikkialta Itämeren alueelta ja ennen muuta suurilta saarilta. Erityisen paljon niitä on Gotlannissa.

Niitä on pidetty hautoina, mutta Göteborgin yliopiston tutkija on väitöskirjassaan toista mieltä: paikoilla tehtiin pronssikauppaa, hän sanoo.

"Kuolonlaivoista" ei löytynytkään vainajia

Tutkija Joakim Wehlin kertoo latomusten sijainnin ja niistä tehtyjen arkeologisten löytöjen kumoavan näkemyksen "kuolonlaivoista", jotka olisi tarkoitettu viemään vainajan sielu merelle. Monista rakennelmista ei löydy mitään merkkiä vainajasta, ja muihinkaan ei yleensä haudattu kokonaisia ruumiita, tutkija havaitsi.

Elävistä ihmisistä jää jälkipolville vähemmän merkkejä kuin haudatuista, joten paik-kojen merkitystä ei ole tajuttu,Wehlin sanoo. Hänen mukaansa latomusten muoto on paljastava: yksityiskohdat kertovat, että kivilaivat tehtiin todellisten laivojen mallin mukaan. Niillä on siis vahva linkki merenkulkuun, Wehlin päättelee.

Maastonmuotoja tutkimalla Wehlin jäljitti useita paikkoja, joita hän pitää pronssikau-tisina kauppasatamina. Kukkuloiden juurella, jokien suulla sijainnutta asutusta on aiemmin pidetty paljon nuorempana, mutta kehittyneet tutkimusmenetelmät ovat osoittaneet sen pronssikautiseksi. "

https://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/31901

" Östersjöns skeppssättningar. Monument och mötes-platser under yngre bronsålder /Baltic Stone Ships. Monuments and Meeting places during the Late Bronze Age "

Screenshot_2019-01-16%20Between%20Scania

http://www.hum.gu.se/aktuellt/Nyheter/fulltext/stenskepp-vittnar-om-langvaga-resor-och-ett-maritimt-natverk-i-ostersjon-for-3-000-ar-sedan.cid1160538

https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/31901/2/gupea_2077_31901_2.pdf

HM: On kiinnitetty ennekin huomiota balttiperäisten paikanni- mien ryppäisiin näiden laivamonumenttien ympäristössä:

Laivalatomuspaikkojen ympäristöt varsinkin Ruotsissa näyttävät vilisevän muita paikkoja selvästi enemmän "-ing-"-loppuisia preussilais/kuurilaistyyppisiä paikanni- miä, vaikka sitten kantasana olisikin selvästi ruotsalainen kuten vaikkapa "Glömmin-ge". Muita tuollaisia 1:2500000-mittakaavaisesta kartasta sentin-parin etäisyydellä "oikeasta paikasta": Blekinge, Veinge, Harplinge, Getinge, Slöinge, Faringe, Vittinge, Björklinge, Gysinge, Huddinge, Taxinge, Graninge, Kumlinge. Ihan "hukkapaikoilla" tuon seikan suhteen tuollaisia nimiä ei tuonkokoisten tai isompien paikkakuntien kohdalla näytäkään esiintyvän ollenkaan. Noilla paikoilla on myös muuta keskinäistä yhteyttä: esimerkiksi Faringen-Vittingen-Björklingen-Gysingen-Huddingen-Taxingen keskellä on myös "Kumla", ja Graningen vieressä on mm. "Ålandsbro".

... Pääte on samaa juurta kuin suomen sekä -inen (liivin -ńi) että -kas (liivin -g).

http://keskustelu.skepsis.fi/Message/FlatMessageIndex/374890?page=9#376759

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https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/ales-stenar-0013730

" Updated 19 May, 2020 - 01:42 Ed Whelan

Ales Stenar, Sweden’s Stone Circle May Have More Secrets

Sweden is famous for the Northern lights, IKEA and their Vikings, known as Varangians.

HM: Varang(er)it eivät olleet ruotalaisia vaan norjalaisia. Tuolloiset noin 1000-luvun arabit ja persialaisetkin osasivat erottaa nämä ryhmät toisistaan mm. heidän erilaisten miekkojensa ja elintapojensa perusteella. Ruotsalaiset ilmeisesti kuitenkin matkivat norjalaisia. Varangi tulee sanana luultvasti vasarakirvessanasta *kwarangis = taisteleva, taistelija, samaa kantaindoeurooppalaista juurta "kwer- = hakata kuin suomen varus ja kirves, liettuan karas = sota, englannin war ja ranskan guerre.
https://hameemmias.vuodatus.net/lue/2017/06/tutkimus-viikinkien-rautamiekat-olivat-huijausta


" The country has a rich history and many heritage sites, one of which is the enigmatic Ales Stenar, (or Ale’s Stone in English). This Iron Age structure predates the Viking Age and is one of the Scandinavian nation’s most mysterious historical monuments, being associated with a mythical king.

The Legends and History of Ales Stenar

There are no written records regarding the site, but there are a number of legends about this unique structure. While archaeological studies have increased our know-ledge of the megalith, there is still a great deal of disagreement on the time frame in which it was erected. Based on the carbon dating of some remains found, it is be-lieved that this site was used in the Neolithic period some 5,500 years ago. Several other remains indicate that the site was used about 1500 years ago, in the Nordic Iron Age, although some believe that the megalith only dates to 500 AD. There are those who believe that the megalith dates to the Bronze Age, and some experts believe that during the Iron Age, local people created the structure out of an earlier Bronze Age monument.

Screenshot%202024-05-14%20at%2021-20-37%

The stones at Ales Stenar have a celestial alignment. (David Lennartsson / CC BY-SA 3.0)

The stones are aligned to the movement of the sun and the moon and were used to make astronomical observations, which would have been crucial for an agricultural society. The sun goes down at the north-western stones during the summer and rises in the south-western section in the winter. This may also mean that Ales Stenar was an important religious site used for rituals.

The Pre-Viking societies that used this site likely practiced a form of natural religion before the development of the well-known Norse pantheon of Gods. People in the Iron Age and even earlier would have celebrated the solstice and the full moon at Ales Stenar and this theory is backed up by the discoveries of hearths linked to bonfires or ritual fires. Many people now visit the area to observe and celebrate the solstice.

Recently, a 5,500-year-old dolmen has been discovered in the vicinity of the megalith.

What to see at Ales Stenar, Sweden?

The megalith is located on a level field of a hill that overlooks the Baltic Sea. In total there are 59 remaining standing stones, and most are between 2 and 4 feet high (0.7 and 1.4 m), but the two standing stones at the end of the structure that are almost 6 feet (1.8 m) high. The megalith, which is elliptical in shape, covers an area approximately 219 by 62 feet (67 x 19 m).

Ground-breaking Science Reveals People Buried at Stonehenge Came from Way Out West

Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery: Where Prehistoric Ireland went for Ritual Burials in a Big Way

The Mysterious Dolmens of the Caucasus

Screenshot%202024-05-14%20at%2021-30-38%

The large stone marking the end of Ales Stenar (msurkamp / Adobe Stock)

The stones have been engraved with the designs known as cup-marks, common in the Bronze Age, but these have been badly weathered, and the stones may have once been whitewashed. A few of the boulders weigh up to 1.8 tons and it must have taken a considerable degree of effort to create the megalith as some of the stones were quarried from a location 18 miles (30 km) away. This suggests that the megalith could have been built on the orders of a monarch.

How Ales Stenar was constructed remains a mystery. It would have taken a great many laborers and resources to create this monument and ensure that it was in the shape of a ship. Because of its scale and the mysterious reason for its construction, it is known as ‘Sweden’s Stonehenge’.

In recent years a stone has been uncovered that may once have been part of the structure which could help historians reinterpret the megalith. Archaeologists believe that the area has many more secrets to reveal.

https://youtu.be/onWLM5QV5Es

Screenshot%202024-05-14%20at%2021-38-48%

Visiting Ales Stenar in Sweden

The location of this interesting site is to the east of the town of Ystad in Kåseberga, in Scania in the south-west of Sweden. There is public transport to Kåseberga, where there is plenty of accommodation. Ales Stenar, is a famous picnic spot, but there are no facilities or refreshments available at the site. No fee is charged to view the ancient monument.

Top image: Stone formation Ales Stenar in southern Sweden on the Baltic Sea coast.        Source: Fabian/ Adobe Stock

By Ed Whelan

References

***


Ruotsin "laivahaudat" saattavat olla "megaliittikansoihin" kuuluneen suppilomalja-kansan eli "trattbägareiden" tekoa ja oletettua vanhempia. rattbärarit oolivat keski-Euroopan ns. palloamforakansan kavereita ja ilmeisimmin liittyivät näihin ja muuttivat Ruotsista pois olosuhteiden uudelleen huonontuessa.Trattbägareiden kirltä ei tunne- ta, vaikka siitä on paljon lainasanoja, ja tiedetään myös mm.että siihä oli hyvin vähän vokaaleita. Esimerkiksi suskulaisuutta tsherkessikieliin on veikkailtu. Palloamforoilla oli paljon tsherkessi-haploryhmää G. N'mä kaukaasian dolmeenit saattavat liittyä asiaan.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/mysterious-dolmens-caucasus-001766

The Mysterious Dolmens of the Caucasus

The Western Caucasus, extending over 275,000 ha of the extreme western end of the Caucasus mountains and located 50 km north-east of the Black Sea, is one of the few large mountain areas of Europe that has not experienced significant human impact. Yet dotted within the pristine landscape are thousands of ancient megalithic structures built many millennia ago. Archaeologists do not know who built them, where the stones came from, or what their true purpose was, leading to much speculation in the scientific community.

The Russians call the megalithic structures dolmens, which means ‘portal tomb’, but despite the name,there is no solid evidence that their original purpose was for burial. Archaeologists put their age at 4000 to 6,000 years old, based on pottery found in the vicinity of the dolmens, as well as human remains, but there is no way to prove whether these were put there much later. 

While there are tens of thousands of known dolmens throughout the world, particu-larly throughout Europe, the Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehis-toric architecture,built with precisely dressed cyclopic stone blocks.The stones were, for example,shaped into 90-degree angles,to be used as corners, and all of them are punctuated with a portal in the centre of the facade. While round holes are the most common, square ones have also been found.Stone plugs have been found at almost every tomb, and were used to block the portal at the front.

While there are tens of thousands of known dolmens throughout the world, particu-larly throughout Europe, the Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehisto-ric architecture, built with precisely dressed cyclopic stone blocks. The stones were, for example, shaped into 90-degree angles, to be used as corners, and all of them are punctuated with a portal in the centre of the facade. While round holes are the most common, square ones have also been found. Stone plugs have been found at almost every tomb, and were used to block the portal at the front.

Caucasian-dolmens-circle.jpg

Most of the Caucasian dolmens contain an almost perfectly formed circle at the front. Photo source.

In front of the facade is a court that usually extends out, creating an area where rituals are believed to have taken place. The court is usually outlined by large stone walls, sometimes over a meter high.It is in this area that Bronze and Iron Age pottery has been found, along with human remains, bronze tools, and ornaments made from silver, gold, or precious stones.

Caucasian-dolmens-stone-wall.jpg

Dolmen surrounded by stone wall, forming a centre court. Photo source: BigStockPhoto

Approximately 3,000 of these megalithic monuments are known in the Western Cau-casus, but more are constantly being found. The average weight of each structure is from 15 to 30 tons,yet there is not even the slightest trace of a quarry in the Western Caucasus,nor have any paths been found with evidence of heavy loads having been brought to the build site. The construction itself is also awe-inspiring. Within most of the dolmens, the huge stone plates join each other precisely with specially made grooves.  The joint places are so close in places that it is impossible to even slide a knife blade between the plates. In 2007, it was decided to reconstruct a dolmen from the stones plates of destroyed structures in Gelendzhik and carry out the processing and fitting with high-precision electric tools. Despite the help of modern technology, the builders were unable to achieve the same level of precision as the Bronze Age builders.

Caucasian-dolmen-circle-2.jpg

Caucasian dolmen displaying straight and precise edges and joints, and a perfectly formed circle in the centre. Photo source.

So, who were these people who achieved such precision in construction? According to the Vladimir Markovin, an archaeologist who has devoted much of his life to stu-dying the Caucasian dolmens, the people of the time lived in mud huts,had no know- ledge of iron or the pottery wheel, and cultivated land with hoes. Yet they still had constructions, whose design is impressive, even by modern standards.

Many locals will tell you the legend of the dwarves who once settled in the area; people who were so tiny that they used hares for riding. And, just like in fairy tales, they lived alongside giants who built stone dwellings for their feeble neighbours so that they could take shelter in bad weather. However, the giants were not repaid for their kindness. In order to tame the giants, the little people blinded them and gave them mind-altering herbs. The giants began to lose their minds and unleashed war and carnage, resulting in mass extinction of both the dwarves and the giants, with only the stone houses remaining.

Caucasian-dolmen-giants.jpg

According to legend, the houses were built by giants for a race of little people who lived inside them. Photo source: BigStockPhoto

Archaeologists have put forward two main hypotheses regarding the purpose of the dolmens.  The first is that they were places of tribal worship. The second is that they were burial places. During the excavation, many of them contained burial sites of people who had lived during different historical periods, and next to them were various items that indicate belief in an afterlife. However, many researchers argue that the burials constitute secondary use and were not the original reason for their construction.

Today, many of the dolmens are in great disrepair and will be completely lost if they are not protected from vandals and general neglect. It is hoped that the ancient megaliths may be preserved long enough to one day unlock their secrets. 

Featured image: A dolmen of the Caucasus. Photo source: BigStockPhoto

By April Holloway

References:

25,000 Year Old Buildings Found In Russia? The Mysterious Dolmens and Megaliths Of The Caucasus – Before its News

Caucasus Dolmens – Ancient Wisdom

The Caucasian Dolmens – Cultural Heritage of Russia

Dolmen Path - Russian Megaliths "

***

Termillä ´laivahauta´ (hautalaiva) tarkoitetaan myöstoista asiaa: eräissä tapauksissa mm. Saarenmaalla viikinkien (?) sotilasjoukkohautaan on haudattu myös laiva. Tässä tutkitaan sitä mahdollisuutta.

https://nyadagbladet.se/kultur/skandinaviens-aldsta-skeppsbegravning-upptackt-i-norge/

" Skandinaviens äldsta skeppsbegravning upptäckt i Norge

publicerad Idag 7:11

- av Sofie Persson

Herlaugshaugen-Norge.jpg

Herlaugshaugen i Trøndelag.

Vid gravhögen Herlaugshaugen i Norge, som beskrivs i Snorres sagor, har arkeologer hittat Skandinaviens äldsta identifierade skeppsbegravning. Den har daterats till 700 e.Kr och tyder på att en större kontakt med omvärlden troligen skedde tidigare än som antagits.

Herlaugshaugen är en av de största gravhögarna i landet och finns i Leka i Trønde-lag.I Snorres sagor nämns den som kung Herlaugs sista viloplats. Utgrävningar som genomfördes i slutet av 1700-talet rapporterades ha avslöjat järnspikar,en bronskittel , djurben och ett sittande skelett med svärd, men fynden försvann under 1920-talet.

Skelettet visades en gång upp på Trondheims katedralskola som kung Herlaug, men ingen vet var det hamnade, säger Geir Grønnesby, projektledare från Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet (NTNU).

Under sommaren har arkeologer påbörjat en utgrävning av gravhögen, som har en diameter på cirka 60 meter, med syfte att datera den samt se om den innehåller ett skepp, något man misstänkt sedan tidigare på grund av storleken. När man började hitta stora järnspikar förstod man att ett skepp kunde ligga begravt under högen.

Gravhögen och skeppet daterades till 700 e.Kr.

Makt och rikedomar

Grønnesby påpekar att fyndet visar på regionens avancerade maritima kapacitet då skeppets storlek indikerar betydande kunskaper inom sjöfart. Herlaugshaugen anses vara ett tecken på makt och rikedom, vilket nu tros ha sitt ursprung i handel och maritima aktiviteter snarare än enbart jordbruk.

Trots att vikingatiden vanligen anses vara mellan cirka 800–1050 e.Kr., har fyndet väckt diskussioner om periodens början. Grønnesby menar dock att man inte kan säga att vikingatiden började tidigare enbart baserat på den här dateringen, men att man inte bygger ett sådant stort skepp utan anledning.

Skeppsgraven tyder på att kontakten med omvärlden var större och tidigare än man tidigare trott, säger han. För när man bygger ganska stora skepp är det oftast för att man ska resa långt med dem.

Före vikingatiden, under den merovingiska perioden (cirka 550–800 e.Kr.), är arkeo-logiska fynd sällsynta.Dock började under denna tid de första båtgravarna dyka upp, som de i Vendel i Tierp och Valsgärde i Uppsala, där människor begravdes med vapen och hjälmar på dunkuddar.

Kung Herlaug

Kung Herlaug och hans bror Rollaug var hövdingar i Namdalen, Norge, under en tid då landets maktstruktur genomgick dramatiska förändringar. När kung Harald Hårfa-ger enade Norge under slutet av 800-talet minskade många lokala hövdingars makt avsevärt. Enligt legenden, som återberättas i Snorres saga, ställdes Herlaug och Rollaug inför ett svårt val när Harald Hårfager närmade sig med sin här: att ge upp sin makt eller att dö.

Herlaug valde att inte underkasta sig och lät istället begrava sig levande i en enorm gravhög, medan Rollaug överlämnade sitt kungarike och accepterade att bli jarl un-der Harald. Denna gravhög, känd som Herlaugshaugen och belägen i Leka, Trønde-lag, är en av Norges största från vikingatiden och tros vara Herlaugs sista viloplats.

Historien om de två bröderna har blivit en del av det skandinaviska kulturarvet och återges inte bara i Snorres saga utan har även inspirerat Henrik Ibsen. Sägnen om Herlaug fortsätter att vara en berättelse som påminner om mod, självuppoffring och en förlorad epok i Skandinaviens historia.

Källa: Visit Norway "