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The Nonsense of White Genes


Have you heard this nonsense statement: "Black Americans have 24% European genes." That little gem comes from a "SUPPOSED" study done by the would-be scientists at the Money Making Company 23andMe, and published in the New York Times DEC. 24, 2014. Here is the link:

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/25/science/23andme-genetic-ethnicity-study.html


Now from that statement, a logical person would assume the Europeans have UNIQUE Genes that would of course be "WHITE" genes, and Blacks would have UNIQUE genes, which of course would be "BLACK" genes. Strange that the 23andMe company didn't mention what those "UNIQUE" genes were.


Moving on; the AncestryDNA Company has a commercial running in the U.S. where a young Black woman (Lyn Johnson) declares that the company tested her genes and found that she was 26% Nigerian. Here again, you would expect that Nigerians have UNIQUE genes which allows us to tell them from all other African people. And here again, the company didn't mention what those "UNIQUE" genes were. But once again, RHWW rides to the rescue - if you will allow us to help.





BACKGROUND:
Nigeria Ethnic groups


Nigeria has more than 500 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo and Fulani: they together account for more than 70% of the population. While the Urhobo-Isoko, Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gwari, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%.

Hausa - According to a Y-DNA study by Hassan et al. (2008), about 47% of the Hausa in Niger and Cameroon have the following paternal lineages: 15.6% B, 12.5% A and 12.5% E1b1a. A small minority of around 4% are E1b1b clade bearers, a haplogroup which is most common in North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

Yoruba - 93.1% of these people are Haplogroup E-V38 (formerly E3a/ E1b1a).

Fulani - The paternal lineages of the Fula/Fulbe/Fulani tend to vary depending on geographic location. According to a study by Cruciani et al. (2002), around 90% of Fulani individuals from Burkina Faso carried haplotype 24, which corresponds with the haplogroup E1b1a that is common in West Africa. The remainder belonged to haplotype 42/haplogroup E-M33 (Now E-M132). Both of these clades are today most frequent among Niger-Congo-speaking populations, particularly those inhabiting Senegal. Similarly, 53% of the Fulani in northern Cameroon bore haplogroup E-M33, with the rest mainly carrying 12% haplogroup A and 6% haplogroup E1b1a). A minority carried the T (18%) and R-M173 (12%). Mulcare et al. (2004) observed a similar frequency of haplogroup R1 subclades in their Fulani samples from Cameroon (18%).

A study by Hassan et al. (2008) on the Fulani in Sudan observed a significantly higher occurrence of R-M173 (53.8%). The remainder belonged to various haplogroup E1b1b subclades, including 34.62% E-M78 and 27.2% E-V22. Bučková et al. (2013) similarly observed significant frequencies of the haplogroups R1b and E1b1b in their pastoralist Fulani groups from Niger. E1b1b attained its highest frequencies among the local Fulani Ader (60%) and R1b among the Fulani Zinder (~31%). This was in sharp contrast to most of the other Fulani pastoralist groups elsewhere, including those from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali and Chad. All of these latter Fulani communities instead bore over 75% West African paternal haplogroups.

Igbo - 89.3% of these people are Haplogroup E-V38 (formerly E3a/ E1b1a).

No genetic information is available for the Urhobo-Isoko, Edo and the other small minority groups: though certain Ijaw People claim to have been tested with Y-DNA R1b1b2a1a1. According to one study 6% in the Kanuri share genes with the Tuareg: which is pretty meaningless.



__________________________________________________________________


THESE ARE THE Y-DNA HAPLOGROUPS FOUND IN "EUROPE" (R1b) (R1a) (I) (E1b1b) (J) (G) (N) (T).


__________________________________________________________________


(Trying hard not to laugh): It seems "Some" Nigerians have "WHITE" European genes: How can that BE? Well, Quite simple really - like Albino history in general, it's all just one big LIE!

First and foremost: There is no such a thing as "White" genes! The reason for that is because a natural Modern Human is a "Black Skinned" African who evolved from earlier Homo-sapiens from about 400,000 years ago. Albinos, such as the European, evolved just 8,000 to 12,000 years ago, as a result of them foolishly breeding among themselves (which can only produce other Albinos), rather than as normally done - with a healthy Black only, which will produce mulattoes of various shades.
The point being that the ONLY difference between original Black genes, and White (Albino) genes, are the following genetic mutations which cause "WHITE SKIN" (Albinism):

TYR Gene - The official name of this gene is "tyrosinase." - it causes Oculocutaneous albinism type I (OCA1)
OCA2 gene (formerly called the P gene) - The official name of this gene is "oculocutaneous albinism II."
TYRP1 gene - The official name of this gene is "tyrosinase-related protein 1." It causes Oculocutaneous albinism type 3 (OCA3)
SLC45A2 gene - The official name of this gene is "solute carrier family 45, member 2." It causes Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4)

As of today, there are four more, for a total of eight different types of Albinism identified. The remainder of this page, and the many other pages in this section, provide great data details to refute the Nonsense of White genes. For those who prefer the say-so of Albinos, CBS 60 minutes did a program called: Rebuilding the Family Tree: A CBS News expose of the "Wildly" false claims of Genetic Testers.

Here is the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWXbXfVr07g

If you don't want to watch the Video, here is some of the information it will give you:
(after we provide some background information on the subject).




UNDERSTANDING DNA and DNA TESTING:


DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person's body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. It is the main constituent of chromosomes, and is the carrier of genetic information.

Chromosomes - are a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Chromosomes are not visible in the cell's nucleus--not even under a microscope--when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division. In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

Autosome - any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (22 in number).

Genes - (Technical use) a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.

Monomers - A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.


Nuclear DNA


Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (NDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism. Nuclear DNA encodes for the majority of the genome in eukaryotes, with mitochondrial DNA and plastid DNA coding for the rest. Nuclear DNA adheres to Mendelian inheritance, with information coming from two parents, one male and one female, rather than matrilineally, as in mitochondrial DNA.


Eukaryote
A Eukaryote is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya, and can be single-celled or multicellular. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material enclosed by the nuclear membrane.

Plastid
The Plastid is a major double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color. They have a common evolutionary origin and possess a double-stranded DNA molecule that is circular, like that of prokaryotic cells.

Mendelian inheritance


Mendel found that there are alternative forms of factors--now called genes--that account for variations in inherited characteristics. For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two forms, one for purple and the other for white. The alternative "forms" are now called alleles. For each biological trait, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. These alleles may be the same or different. An organism that has two identical alleles for a gene is said to be homozygous for that gene (and is called a homozygote). An organism that has two different alleles for a gene is said be heterozygous for that gene (and is called a heterozygote).

The genotype of an individual is made up of the many alleles it possesses. An individual's physical appearance, or phenotype, is determined by its alleles as well as by its environment. The presence of an allele does not mean that the trait will be expressed in the individual that possesses it. If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ (the heterozygous condition), then one determines the organism's appearance and is called the dominant allele; the other has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance and is called the recessive allele. Thus, in the example above the dominant purple flower allele will hide the phenotypic effects of the recessive white flower allele. This is known as the Law of Dominance but it is not a transmission law, dominance has to do with the expression of the genotype and not its transmission. The upper case letters are used to represent dominant alleles whereas the lowercase letters are used to represent recessive alleles.


A Perfect Everyday Example of Mendelian inheritance is the Disease of Albinism


NOAH - National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation

What is Albinism?

Albinism is an inherited genetic condition that reduces the amount of melanin pigment formed in the skin, hair and/or eyes. A common myth is that people with albinism have red eyes. Although lighting conditions can allow the blood vessels at the back of the eye to be seen, which can cause the eyes to look reddish or violet, most people with Albinism have blue eyes, and some have hazel or brown eyes. There are different types of albinism and the amount of pigment in the eyes varies.

Dermatological Considerations - Because most (not all) people with Albinism have fair complexions, it's important to avoid sun damage to the skin and eyes by taking precautions such as wearing sunscreen or sunblock, hats, sunglasses and sun-protective clothing.

Types of Albinism - While most people with albinism have very light skin and hair: levels of pigmentation can vary depending on one's type of albinism, (as well as over time: Children born with Blonde hair, sometimes turn into Brunettes). Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) involves the eyes, hair and skin. (There are currently 8 types of Albinism identified).

Albinism is passed from parents to their children through genes. For most types of albinism, both parents must carry an albinism gene to have a child with albinism. Parents may have normal pigmentation but still carry the gene. When both parents carry the gene, and neither parent has albinism, there is a one-in-four chance at each pregnancy that the baby will be born with albinism. This type of inheritance is called autosomal recessive inheritance. The diagrams below explain the process. Of course if BOTH parents have Albinism (Little or No pigmentation), then they can ONLY produce Albinos like themselves.




 

NUCLEAR DNA (Y-DNA)

The human Y chromosome is a male-specific sex chromosome. Nearly all humans who possess a Y chromosome will be morphologically male. Although the Y chromosome is situated in the cell nucleus, it only recombines with the X-chromosome at the ends of the Y chromosome; the vast majority of the Y chromosome (95%) does not recombine. When mutations (errors in the copying process) arise in the Y chromosome in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms) or short tandem repeats, they are passed down directly from father to son in a direct male line of descent. This line is known as the patriline.

A (Y) chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or direct father's-line ancestry. The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically coordinated in a surname DNA project. The mutation rate for nuclear DNA is less than 0.3% while that of mitochondrial DNA is generally higher. Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them.


Autosomal DNA

Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more common) and auDNA are used.

Autosomal DNA is inherited from both parents, and includes random contributions from their parents, grandparents, and so on. Therefore, your autosomes essentially contain a complete genetic record, with all branches of your ancestry at some point contributing a piece of your autosomal DNA.

Everyone (males and females) can take this test: Autosomal DNA tests can be used to search for relative connections along any branch of your family tree. Unless the connection is so far back that the shared DNA has essentially been eliminated through too many generations of recombination, any autosomal match between two individuals indicates a possible genetic connection. There is nothing in this test that will tell you which branch of your family the match is on, however. Therefore, having your parents, grandparents, cousins, and other family members tested will help you to narrow down potential matches.
How Autosomal DNA Testing Works

For each of your twenty-two pairs of autosomal chromosomes, you received one from your mother and one from your father. Before they passed these chromosomes down to you, the contents were randomly jumbled in a process called "recombination" (this is why you and your siblings are all a little different from each other).

Your parents, in turn, received their chromosomes from their parents (your grandparents). Your autosomal DNA, therefore, contains random bits of DNA from your great-grandparents, great-great grandparents, and so on.

Close relatives will share large fragments of DNA from a common ancestor. Connections arising from more distant relatives will result in smaller fragments of shared DNA.

The smaller the fragment of shared autosomal DNA, generally the further back the connection in your family tree. Even these tiny segments of shared DNA can potentially hold a clue, however! The way in which your individual DNA has recombined through the generations also means that you may no longer carry DNA from a particular ancestor. Distant relatives often share no genetic material at all, although it is also possible to match an individual through a very distant ancestor.

How Accurate is Autosomal DNA Testing?

The average amount of autosomal DNA shared with a relative decreases with each successive generation. Percentages are also approximate - for example a sibling may share anywhere from 47-52% of their DNA in common.

50% (parents and siblings)
25% (grandparents, aunts/uncles, half-siblings, double first-cousins)
12.5% (first cousins)
6.25% (first cousins, once removed)
3.125 (second cousins, first cousins twice removed)
0.781% (third cousins)
0.195% (fourth cousins)

The chance that an autosomal DNA test will accurately detect a relative decreases with the distance of the relationship. For example, most autosomal DNA ancestry tests predict an accuracy rate of 90-98% when detecting a match with a 3rd cousin, but around a 45-50% chance of detecting a match with a fourth cousin.

Depending on the DNA recombination, however, an autosomal test may sometimes accurately detect more distant cousins (fifth cousins and beyond). Double descent from a common distant ancestor (e.g. marriage of second cousins) may potentially increase the chance of a match


Mitochondrial DNA


Mitochondrial DNA - Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).


In humans, mitochondrial DNA spans about 16,500 DNA building blocks (base pairs), representing a small fraction of the total DNA in cells. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy source. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins.

Mitochondrial DNA tests


A mitochondrial DNA test (mtDNA test) traces a person's matrilineal or mother-line ancestry using the DNA in his or her mitochondria. MtDNA is passed down by the mother unchanged, to all her children, both male and female. A mitochondrial DNA test can therefore be taken by both men and women. If a perfect match is found to another person's mtDNA test results, one may find a common ancestor in the other relative's (matrilineal) "information table". Males inherit mtDNA from their mother but do not pass it on to their children. Males inherit Y-DNA from their father. They pass on Y-DNA to their sons but not their daughters. Females inherit mtDNA from their mother. They pass on mtDNA to both their male and female children. Females do not inherit Y-DNA from their father.

What gets tested?

MtDNA by current conventions is divided into three regions. They are the coding region (00577-16023) and two hyper-variable regions (HVR1 [16024-16569], and HVR2 [00001-00576]). All test results are compared to the mtDNA of a European in haplogroup H2a2a (Nowhere is the Albinos delusion of importance greater than here). This early sample is known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). An updated reference sequence was subsequently published and samples are now compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). A list of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is returned. The relatively few "mutations" or "transitions" that are found are then reported simply as differences from the CRS


Haplogroup H (mtDNA)

Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA clade in Europe. It is found in approximately 41% of native Europeans. The lineage is also common in North Africa and the Middle East. The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%-50%. Frequencies decrease in the southeast of the continent. The clade reaches 20% in the Near East and Caucasus, 17% in Iran, and <10% in the Arabian Peninsula, Northern India and Central Asia.

Undifferentiated haplogroup H has been found among Palestinians (14%), Syrians (13.6%), Druze (10.6%), Iraqis (9.5%), Somalis (6.7%), Egyptians (5.7% in El-Hayez; 14.7% in Gurna), Saudis (5.3-10%), Soqotri (3.1%), Nubians (1.3%), and Yemenis (0-13.9%).

Haplogroup H has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Taforalt prehistoric site.
The clade has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom and Ptolemaic periods. Additionally, haplogroup H has been found among specimens at the mainland cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800).

H2, H6 and H8

The H2, H6 and H8 haplogroups are somewhat common in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. They may be the most common H subclades among Central Asians (the REAL home of European Albinos), and have also been found in West Asia. H2a5 has been found in the Basque Country, Spain, and in Norway, Ireland and Slovakia. H6a1a1a is common among Ashkenazi Jews.

 

NUCLEAR DNA (Y-DNA)

The human Y chromosome is a male-specific sex chromosome. Nearly all humans who possess a Y chromosome will be morphologically male. Although the Y chromosome is situated in the cell nucleus, it only recombines with the X-chromosome at the ends of the Y chromosome; the vast majority of the Y chromosome (95%) does not recombine. When mutations (errors in the copying process) arise in the Y chromosome in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms) or short tandem repeats, they are passed down directly from father to son in a direct male line of descent. This line is known as the patriline.

A (Y) chromosome DNA test (Y-DNA test) is a genealogical DNA test which is used to explore a man's patrilineal or direct father's-line ancestry. The Y chromosome, like the patrilineal surname, passes down virtually unchanged from father to son. Every now and then occasional mistakes in the copying process occur, and these mutations can be used to estimate the time frame in which the two individuals share a most recent common ancestor or MRCA. If their test results are a perfect or nearly perfect match, they are related within a genealogical time frame. Each person can then look at the other's father-line information, typically the names of each patrilineal ancestor and his spouse, together with the dates and places of their marriage and of both spouses' births and deaths. The two matched persons may find a common ancestor or MRCA, as well as whatever information the other already has about their joint patriline or father's line prior to the MRCA. Y-DNA tests are typically coordinated in a surname DNA project. The mutation rate for nuclear DNA is less than 0.3% while that of mitochondrial DNA is generally higher. Women who wish to determine their direct paternal DNA ancestry can ask their father, brother, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather, or a cousin who shares the same surname lineage (the same Y-DNA) to take a test for them.


Autosomal DNA

Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA which is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. An autosome is any of the numbered chromosomes, as opposed to the sex chromosomes. Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2,800 genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately 750 genes. There is no established abbreviation for autosomal DNA: atDNA (more common) and auDNA are used.

Autosomal DNA is inherited from both parents, and includes random contributions from their parents, grandparents, and so on. Therefore, your autosomes essentially contain a complete genetic record, with all branches of your ancestry at some point contributing a piece of your autosomal DNA.

Everyone (males and females) can take this test: Autosomal DNA tests can be used to search for relative connections along any branch of your family tree. Unless the connection is so far back that the shared DNA has essentially been eliminated through too many generations of recombination, any autosomal match between two individuals indicates a possible genetic connection. There is nothing in this test that will tell you which branch of your family the match is on, however. Therefore, having your parents, grandparents, cousins, and other family members tested will help you to narrow down potential matches.
How Autosomal DNA Testing Works

For each of your twenty-two pairs of autosomal chromosomes, you received one from your mother and one from your father. Before they passed these chromosomes down to you, the contents were randomly jumbled in a process called "recombination" (this is why you and your siblings are all a little different from each other).

Your parents, in turn, received their chromosomes from their parents (your grandparents). Your autosomal DNA, therefore, contains random bits of DNA from your great-grandparents, great-great grandparents, and so on.

Close relatives will share large fragments of DNA from a common ancestor. Connections arising from more distant relatives will result in smaller fragments of shared DNA.

The smaller the fragment of shared autosomal DNA, generally the further back the connection in your family tree. Even these tiny segments of shared DNA can potentially hold a clue, however! The way in which your individual DNA has recombined through the generations also means that you may no longer carry DNA from a particular ancestor. Distant relatives often share no genetic material at all, although it is also possible to match an individual through a very distant ancestor.

How Accurate is Autosomal DNA Testing?

The average amount of autosomal DNA shared with a relative decreases with each successive generation. Percentages are also approximate - for example a sibling may share anywhere from 47-52% of their DNA in common.

50% (parents and siblings)
25% (grandparents, aunts/uncles, half-siblings, double first-cousins)
12.5% (first cousins)
6.25% (first cousins, once removed)
3.125 (second cousins, first cousins twice removed)
0.781% (third cousins)
0.195% (fourth cousins)

The chance that an autosomal DNA test will accurately detect a relative decreases with the distance of the relationship. For example, most autosomal DNA ancestry tests predict an accuracy rate of 90-98% when detecting a match with a 3rd cousin, but around a 45-50% chance of detecting a match with a fourth cousin.

Depending on the DNA recombination, however, an autosomal test may sometimes accurately detect more distant cousins (fifth cousins and beyond). Double descent from a common distant ancestor (e.g. marriage of second cousins) may potentially increase the chance of a match


Mitochondrial DNA


Mitochondrial DNA - Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm).


In humans, mitochondrial DNA spans about 16,500 DNA building blocks (base pairs), representing a small fraction of the total DNA in cells. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy source. The remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules called transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which are chemical cousins of DNA. These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins.

Mitochondrial DNA tests


A mitochondrial DNA test (mtDNA test) traces a person's matrilineal or mother-line ancestry using the DNA in his or her mitochondria. MtDNA is passed down by the mother unchanged, to all her children, both male and female. A mitochondrial DNA test can therefore be taken by both men and women. If a perfect match is found to another person's mtDNA test results, one may find a common ancestor in the other relative's (matrilineal) "information table". Males inherit mtDNA from their mother but do not pass it on to their children. Males inherit Y-DNA from their father. They pass on Y-DNA to their sons but not their daughters. Females inherit mtDNA from their mother. They pass on mtDNA to both their male and female children. Females do not inherit Y-DNA from their father.

What gets tested?

MtDNA by current conventions is divided into three regions. They are the coding region (00577-16023) and two hyper-variable regions (HVR1 [16024-16569], and HVR2 [00001-00576]). All test results are compared to the mtDNA of a European in haplogroup H2a2a (Nowhere is the Albinos delusion of importance greater than here). This early sample is known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). An updated reference sequence was subsequently published and samples are now compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). A list of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is returned. The relatively few "mutations" or "transitions" that are found are then reported simply as differences from the CRS


Haplogroup H (mtDNA)

Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA clade in Europe. It is found in approximately 41% of native Europeans. The lineage is also common in North Africa and the Middle East. The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%-50%. Frequencies decrease in the southeast of the continent. The clade reaches 20% in the Near East and Caucasus, 17% in Iran, and <10% in the Arabian Peninsula, Northern India and Central Asia.

Undifferentiated haplogroup H has been found among Palestinians (14%), Syrians (13.6%), Druze (10.6%), Iraqis (9.5%), Somalis (6.7%), Egyptians (5.7% in El-Hayez; 14.7% in Gurna), Saudis (5.3-10%), Soqotri (3.1%), Nubians (1.3%), and Yemenis (0-13.9%).

Haplogroup H has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Taforalt prehistoric site.
The clade has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom and Ptolemaic periods. Additionally, haplogroup H has been found among specimens at the mainland cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800).

H2, H6 and H8

The H2, H6 and H8 haplogroups are somewhat common in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. They may be the most common H subclades among Central Asians (the REAL home of European Albinos), and have also been found in West Asia. H2a5 has been found in the Basque Country, Spain, and in Norway, Ireland and Slovakia. H6a1a1a is common among Ashkenazi Jews.









As a point of interest, the "OLDEST" DNA extracted from Human remains in Europe is the MtDNA haplogroup "U2" and Y-DNA "C" taken from the remains of this Black African Man whom the Albinos have tried mightily to make appear Caucasian.




https://www.pirkanblogit.fi/2017/risto_koivula/suomalaisten-geneettiset-ja-kielelliset-juuret/


Suomalaisten geneettiset ja kielelliset juuret


A FMS (full mitochondrial sequence) test will report results for all 16,569 bases in the mtGenome and will provide the most detailed subclade assignment. If two people have an exact FMS match they will generally share a common ancestor within the last 22 generations (about 550 years). Conversely it is sometimes possible for mothers and daughters or siblings to have differences in their mtDNA. These differences usually take the form of a heteroplasmy.

Note: It takes only three generations for a Black Man mating ONLY with Albino women, to produce Great grandchildren who look the same as "Most" modern Europeans.

MtDNA tree

The most up-to-date version of the mtDNA tree can be viewed at www.phylotree.org. Phylotree is now on Build 17. Updates are released once or twice a year. Genetic genealogists who have taken mtDNA tests with different companies will sometimes find that they receive different haplogroup assignments. This is because the companies are using different versions of the mtDNA tree. Family Tree DNA updated to Build 17 towards the end of March 2017. However the Genographic Project is currently using Build 16, and 23andMe uses Build 7.






From: The Tech Museum of Innovation, Stanford School of Medicine. Its content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of Stanford University or the Department of Genetics.

Case History: April 3, 2013

Hello, I did an African mtDNA ancestry test in hopes of pinpointing a tribe of my African lineage (that's what the company claimed they do). I'm an African-American woman. I received my results and it said that my lineage was of European descent, non-African. What does this mean? I was very confused because I'm clearly black as are my parents and grandparents before them. Does that mean there is no African in me at all or that they just didn't find it? A curious adult from Florida

Answer by Dr. Barry Starr, Stanford University

There is undoubtedly plenty of African in your DNA. The problem is that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) test missed it. Which isn't surprising if we dig a little deeper into what this sort of test can actually tell you. A mtDNA test can look deep into the past which is why it is so useful for the kind of information you were looking for. But its big disadvantage is that it can only follow your maternal line back. And in fact, it can really only trace back a single maternal line. (Comment - we all have many grandmothers, both from our mothers AND fathers).

Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to children. So you get your mtDNA from your mom, who got it from her mom and so on all the way back to Mitochondrial Eve.
This obviously means that the test ignores your dad's side of the family since you do not have his mtDNA. But it also means that it is ignores your mom's dad's mtDNA because your mom only got hers from her mom.

And it ignores lots of other relatives from your mother's side of the family too. Pretty much anyone not on a direct maternal line will be missed. It also means that it takes just a single ancestor from a different ethnic group to move the line onto a whole new track. Imagine that ten or fifteen generations back, one of your ancestors along the maternal line was Caucasian. Now as we trace the line back, we are tracing her line back. You would look Caucasian.


This would be true even if everyone after that woman had kids with African Americans. There wouldn't be any dilution of the mtDNA for the 200-300 years. And in reality, we don't need to go back ten or fifteen generations. Imagine a man like President Obama took one of these tests. His results would come back as 100% white, no black whatsoever because his mom is Caucasian. This is even though he is obviously half black from his dad.


Something like this almost certainly happened to you. There is probably an unbroken line back to a Caucasian woman and so your mtDNA looks Caucasian. This kind of result is always a risk with mtDNA tests. They are incredibly powerful and incredibly limited at the same time. They can tell you a lot about distant relatives but you can only see a small subset of them.

DNA tests that look at the rest of your DNA, autosomal DNA tests, would definitely find African in your DNA but they wouldn't be able to see very far back in time because of how DNA is passed down. In fact these DNA tests can only go back reliably four or five generations. What this means is that an autosomal DNA test would immediately have found that you were African but it probably would not have been able to tell you the tribe(s) your ancestors came from. And it would have missed your white ancestor too! (Note that even this sincere appearing Albino is still pushing the lie that Albinos have genes different than Blacks - that's why you take some, and throw-away some, of what Albinos say).


IN ITALY:

In 2016 it was found that a 31-35 thousand years old human from the cave named Paglicci 33 (Rignano Garganico (FG, Apulia, Italy) carried Y-DNA haplogroup I and mtDNA haplogroup U8c.

See: No Whites/Albinos in early Human history.

A FMS (full mitochondrial sequence) test will report results for all 16,569 bases in the mtGenome and will provide the most detailed subclade assignment. If two people have an exact FMS match they will generally share a common ancestor within the last 22 generations (about 550 years). Conversely it is sometimes possible for mothers and daughters or siblings to have differences in their mtDNA. These differences usually take the form of a heteroplasmy.

Note: It takes only three generations for a Black Man mating ONLY with Albino women, to produce Great grandchildren who look the same as "Most" modern Europeans.

MtDNA tree

The most up-to-date version of the mtDNA tree can be viewed at www.phylotree.org. Phylotree is now on Build 17. Updates are released once or twice a year. Genetic genealogists who have taken mtDNA tests with different companies will sometimes find that they receive different haplogroup assignments. This is because the companies are using different versions of the mtDNA tree. Family Tree DNA updated to Build 17 towards the end of March 2017. However the Genographic Project is currently using Build 16, and 23andMe uses Build 7.

 

Understanding Genetics

 

From: The Tech Museum of Innovation, Stanford School of Medicine. Its content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of Stanford University or the Department of Genetics.

Case History: April 3, 2013

Hello, I did an African mtDNA ancestry test in hopes of pinpointing a tribe of my African lineage (that's what the company claimed they do). I'm an African-American woman. I received my results and it said that my lineage was of European descent, non-African. What does this mean? I was very confused because I'm clearly black as are my parents and grandparents before them. Does that mean there is no African in me at all or that they just didn't find it? A curious adult from Florida

Answer by Dr. Barry Starr, Stanford University

There is undoubtedly plenty of African in your DNA. The problem is that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) test missed it. Which isn't surprising if we dig a little deeper into what this sort of test can actually tell you. A mtDNA test can look deep into the past which is why it is so useful for the kind of information you were looking for. But its big disadvantage is that it can only follow your maternal line back. And in fact, it can really only trace back a single maternal line. (Comment - we all have many grandmothers, both from our mothers AND fathers).

Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to children. So you get your mtDNA from your mom, who got it from her mom and so on all the way back to Mitochondrial Eve.
This obviously means that the test ignores your dad's side of the family since you do not have his mtDNA. But it also means that it is ignores your mom's dad's mtDNA because your mom only got hers from her mom.

And it ignores lots of other relatives from your mother's side of the family too. Pretty much anyone not on a direct maternal line will be missed. It also means that it takes just a single ancestor from a different ethnic group to move the line onto a whole new track. Imagine that ten or fifteen generations back, one of your ancestors along the maternal line was Caucasian. Now as we trace the line back, we are tracing her line back. You would look Caucasian.

This would be true even if everyone after that woman had kids with African Americans. There wouldn't be any dilution of the mtDNA for the 200-300 years. And in reality, we don't need to go back ten or fifteen generations. Imagine a man like President Obama took one of these tests. His results would come back as 100% white, no black whatsoever because his mom is Caucasian. This is even though he is obviously half black from his dad.

Something like this almost certainly happened to you. There is probably an unbroken line back to a Caucasian woman and so your mtDNA looks Caucasian. This kind of result is always a risk with mtDNA tests. They are incredibly powerful and incredibly limited at the same time. They can tell you a lot about distant relatives but you can only see a small subset of them.

DNA tests that look at the rest of your DNA, autosomal DNA tests, would definitely find African in your DNA but they wouldn't be able to see very far back in time because of how DNA is passed down. In fact these DNA tests can only go back reliably four or five generations. What this means is that an autosomal DNA test would immediately have found that you were African but it probably would not have been able to tell you the tribe(s) your ancestors came from. And it would have missed your white ancestor too! (Note that even this sincere appearing Albino is still pushing the lie that Albinos have genes different than Blacks - that's why you take some, and throw-away some, of what Albinos say).

 

Minolaiset olivat mustia (mikä ei välttämättä tarkoita, että he olisisvat olleet neekereitä):


Moving on:

 
FIRST THE FACTS!

 
Washington Post: Friday, May 1, 2009

Study Finds Africans More Genetically Diverse Than Other Populations:

The first anatomically modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago, and all humans today are their direct descendants. The study points to an area along the Namibia-South Africa border, the homeland of the San people, as the starting point for a southwest-to-northeast migratory route that carried people through Africa and across the Red Sea into Eurasia.

Africans are more genetically diverse than the inhabitants of the rest of the world combined, according to a sweeping study that carried researchers into remote regions to sample the bloodlines of more than 100 distinct populations. So says Sarah Tishkoff, a University of Pennsylvania geneticist who led the international research team. The report was published in the journal Science Express.

MORE:

 
 
CONFIRMED!

 
Spencer Wells, Genetic Anthropologist, on the first Great Migrations

Genetic data corroborates the mitochondrial results, placing the root of the human family tree - our most recent common ancestor- in Africa within the past few hundred thousand years. Consistent with this result, all of the genetic data shows the greatest number of polymorphisms in Africa - there is simply far more variation in that continent than anywhere else. You are more likely to sample extremely divergent genetic lineages within a single African village than you are in whole of the rest of the world. The majority of the genetic polymorphisms found in our species are found uniquely in Africans - Europeans, Asians and Native Americans carry only a small sample of the extraordinary diversity that can be found in any African village.

 

 

 
As the evidence clearly indicates, ALL humans are African, therefore ALL human genetics (DNA) is African. Logically then, ALL human haplogroups MUST be found in Africa! And so they are, in spite of Albino obfuscations intended to support their bogus view of themselves, and their bogus histories.
 
____________________________________________________________________________

 
 
NOW FOR THE ALBINO NONSENSE

 

Albino people try to embed three thoughts into our minds: 1) That they are unique, a completely separate branch of the Human Tree, a different "Race" if you will: and certainly NOT Albinos: 2) They ARE Native to Europe: 3) They were the "Original" people of Mans Ancient Civilizations. All of which are of course total and utter nonsense. But in trying to make those absurdities seem plausible, they create all sorts of Pseudo-Scientific Lies. The news-story below s
eeks to embed in us, belief in the lie that there is such a thing as "WHITE PEOPLES GENES".

 

 
Here is what the story said:

 
The Daily Mail U.K.

The Minoans were Caucasian: DNA debunks longstanding theory that Europe's first advanced culture was from Africa

By Damien Gayle - Published: 16:13 EST, 16 May 2013

 

DNA analysis has debunked the longstanding theory that the Minoans, who some 5,000 years ago established Europe's first advanced Bronze Age culture, were from Africa. The Minoan civilisation arose on the Mediterranean island of Crete in approximately the 27th century BC and flourished for 12 centuries until the 15th century BC.But the culture was lost until British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans unearthed its remains on Crete in 1900, where he found vestiges of a civilisation he believed was formed by refugees from northern Egypt.

Modern archaeologists have cast doubt on that version of events, and now DNA tests of Minoan remains suggests they were descended from ancient farmers who settled the islands thousands of years earlier. These people, it is believed, are from the same stock that came from the East to populate the rest of Europe. Evans set to work on Crete in 1900 with a team of archaeologists soon after the island was liberated from the yoke of the Ottoman empire, almost immediately unearthing a great palace.

He named the civilisation he discovered after the legendary Greek king Minos and, based on likenesses between Minoan artifacts and those from Egypt and Libya, proposed that its founders migrated into the area from North Africa. Since then, other archaeologists have suggested that the Minoans may have come from other regions, possibly Turkey, the Balkans, or the Middle East. But now a joint U.S. and Greek team has made a mitochondrial DNA analysis of Minoan skeletal remains to determine the likely ancestors of the ancient people. Mitochondria, the energy powerhouses of cells, contain their own DNA, or genetic code, and because mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mothers to their children via the human egg, it contains information about maternal ancestry.

Findings suggest that the Minoan civilisation arose from the population already living in Crete, and that these people were probably descendants of the first humans to reach there about 9,000 years ago. Further, they found, the remains have the greatest genetic similarity with modern European populations. Senior researcher Dr George Stamatoyannopoulos, professor of medicine and genome sciences at the University of Washington, said the analysis showed these people probably came to the area from the East, not the South.

'About 9,000 years ago there was an extensive migration of Neolithic humans from the regions of Anatolia that today comprise parts of Turkey and the Middle East,' he said.'At the same time, the first Neolithic inhabitants reached Crete. 'Our mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that the Minoans' strongest genetic relationships are with these Neolithic humans, as well as with ancient and modern Europeans. 'These results suggest the Minoan civilization arose 5,000 years ago in Crete from an ancestral Neolithic population that had arrived in the region about 4,000 years earlier. 'Our data suggest that the Neolithic population that gave rise to the Minoans also migrated into Europe and gave rise to modern European peoples.'

Dr Stamatoyannopoulos and his team analysed samples from 37 skeletons found in a cave in Crete's Lassithi plateau and compared them with mitochondrial DNA sequences from 135 modern and ancient human populations. The Minoan samples revealed 21 distinct mitochondrial DNA variations, of which six were unique to the Minoans and 15 were shared with modern and ancient populations. None of the Minoans carried mitochondrial DNA variations characteristic of African populations. Further analysis showed that the Minoans were only distantly related to Egyptian, Libyan, and other North African populations. Indeed, the Minoan shared the greatest percentage of their mitochondrial DNA variation with European populations, especially those in Northern and Western Europe.

When plotted geographically, shared Minoan mitochondrial DNA variation was lowest in North Africa and increased progressively across the Middle East, Caucasus, Mediterranean islands, Southern Europe, and mainland Europe. The highest percentage of shared Minoan mitochondrial DNA variation was found with Neolithic populations from Southern Europe. The analysis also showed a high degree of sharing with the current population of the Lassithi plateau and Greece. In fact, the maternal genetic information passed down through many generations of mitochondria is still present in modern-day residents of the area where the Minoan skeletons were found. Dr Stamatoyannopoulos said he believes that the findings highlight the importance of DNA analysis as a tool for understanding human history.

 
Someone really needs to inform the liar Stamatoyannopoulos, that in this day and age, pictures of Minoan people depicting artifacts are all over the "Internet". Thus we can clearly see that they were BLACK people!


 
                
















http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Data/Minoan%20related/Kefti_1.jpg

"Minolaista taidetta" on väärennetty, taipaljon myöhäisempää luultu sellaiseksi:

Of course, with a civilization as important as the Minoans, the Albino people were certain to do what they always do: MAKE FAKE ARTIFACTS OF THE MINOANS, WHICH MAKE THEM APPEAR TO BE WHITES!
 




This Book explains the FRAUD!

The New York Review of Books

Knossos: Fakes, Facts, and Mystery
by Mary Beard, August 13, 2009 Issue

The masterpieces of Minoan art are not what they seem. The vivid frescoes that once decorated the walls of the prehistoric palace at Knossos in Crete are now the main attraction of the Archaeological Museum in the modern city of Heraklion, a few miles from the site of Knossos. Dating from the early or mid-second millennium BC, they are some of the most famous icons of ancient European culture, reproduced on countless postcards and posters, T-shirts and refrigerator magnets: the magnificent young "prince" with his floral crown, walking through a field of lilies; the five blue dolphins patrolling their underwater world between minnows and sea urchins; the three "ladies in blue" (a favorite Minoan color) with their curling black hair, low-cut dresses, and gesticulating hands, as if they have been caught in mid-conversation. The prehistoric world they evoke seems in some ways distant and strange--yet, at the same time, reassuringly recognizable and almost moder
n.



The truth is that these famous icons are largely modern. As any sharp-eyed visitor to the Heraklion museum can spot, what survives of the original paintings amounts in most cases to no more than a few square inches. The rest is more or less imaginative reconstruction, commissioned in the first half of the twentieth century by Sir Arthur Evans, the British excavator of the palace of Knossos (and the man who coined the term "Minoan" for this prehistoric Cretan civilization, after the mythical King Minos who is said to have held the throne there). As a general rule of thumb, the more famous the image now is, the less of it is actually ancient.

 

AIKA KUMMALLISTA JUTTUA JA AJOITUKSIA....

Euroopassa kyllä oli mustaa väestöä ajanlaskun alun jälkeen kuten maureja Espanjassa, mutta he olivat roomalsiten tuomia mustia orjia sen jälkeen, kun kristinusko kielsi leikkaamasta orjalta nenää ja korvia yhteiskuntaluokan merkiksi, jotta karanneet orjat voitiin tunnistaa.

Mutta katsotaan nyt noita haploryhmiä (vastuu siirtyy lukijalle):


[d]A quick explanation of how genetic type is passed down through generations.[/b]

Europeans are Dravidian Albinos from Central Asia (that is why they and the Black Dravidians, share the same DNA); they invaded Europe twice: the first time was about 1,200 B.C. When the dust had settled hundreds of years later, they had been absorbed into the originally Black, Greek and Roman populations.

(SB: Nämä eivät oleet mustia, vaikka minolaiset olisivatkin olleet!

Ainakin kelttiläis-roomalaiset tulivat länsi-Eurooppaan sotavanukansan mukana/ominaisuudessa n. 2000 e.a.a. Romaanisetkin kielet lilisevät vasarakirveslainoja, mm. *akwa =  vesi (Oka, Akaa, aava, aapa, å, ö...)


Which became mixed race populations, as their artifacts clearly indicate. The second invasion was at the beginning of the current era (A.D.). The predominate Albino people were people whom we call "the Germanics". It is clear from the writings of the Roman historian Tacitus, that as the Germanics moved into new territories, the indigenous Black Europeans, were killing German Males, and taking their Females as spoils of War. Thus their offspring gained the ability to produce "Some" Melanin in their skin, and the Males gained a strengthening measure of genetic diversity. But most importantly, the German females were not taken as wives, they were simply "despoiled" and allowed to return to their tribes. Y-dna does not change, it is passed from father to son, regardless of whether the father is Black or White. Thus their "Mulatto" Male offspring would retain the Y-dna haplogroup "I or R" of their Black despoiler father. When these mulatto males bred with their tribal White females, their resultant male offspring would be Quadroons (1/4) Black, but still with the Y-dna haplogroup "I or R" of their despoiler grandfather. When these Quadroon males bred with their tribal White females, their resultant male offspring would be Octoroons (1/8) Black, but still with the Y-dna haplogroup "I or R" of their despoiler great grandfather - and so on. Blacks were the original settlers of Europe, some them, especially in Central Europe, were also Y-dna haplogroup "R".

(RK: Potaskaa: vanhat manner-eurooppalaiset eivät olleet mustia, eivätkä germaanit tulleet tuolloin vasta Eurooppaan, eivätkä sotavaunukansankaan mukana, vaan olivat täällä jo, jossakin Tonavan alueella. He joutuivat osaltaan sotavaunukansan jyräämiksi. Tacitus ei osannut erottaa toisitaan esimerkiksi kelttejä (tai baltteja) ja germaaneja. Germaanit olivat Ruotsista huononevaa ilmastoa etelään pakenevien suppilopikariheimolaisten (trattbägareiden) kavereita ja muodostivat näiden kanssa skandinaavisen kieliryhmän, ehkä koko germaanisenkin ryhmän. Osa germaaniseksi luulemastamme sanastosta on trattbägaria.)





(Neekerimies on tulliut/tuotu muualta, nainen/vaimo paikallisia. Ihmiset liikkuivat kivikauden Euroopassa eläissään uskomattoman pitkiä matkoja, varsinkin jotkut naiset, ilmeisesti suht nuorella iällä.)
 
Results of the DNA tests indicate that in the Nuclear family, the Father was Y-dna R1a, the Mother was MTdna - K

 

Note: Albinism does NOT cause a change in Haplogroup. A Dravidian of Haplogroup "R" will produce an Albino Child of haplogroup "R". The genetic change is internal to the haplogroup.


 
Origins of Y-dna Haplogroup "R"

From Wikipedia:

According to the Genographic Project conducted by the National Geographic Society, Haplogroup R2a arose about 25,000 years ago in Central Asia and its members migrated southward as part of the second major wave of human migration into India.

According to Sengupta et al. (2006),

uncertainty neutralizes previous conclusions that the intrusion of HGs R1a1 and R2 [Now R-M124] from the northwest in Dravidian-speaking southern tribes is attributable to a single recent event. Rather, these HGs contain considerable demographic complexity, as implied by their high haplotype diversity. Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from a southwestern Asian source region multiple times, with some episodes considerably earlier than others.

The following is Manoukian's (2006) summary of the findings of the Genographic Project conducted by the National Geographic Society and directed by Spencer Wells (2001):

Haplogroup R, the ancestral clade to R1 and R2, appeared on the Central Asian Steppes around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago.

R1, sister clade to R2, moved to the West (READ EUROPE) from the Central Asian Steppes around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago. R1 pockets were established, from where R1a and R1b emerged.

R2a [R-M124] made its first entry into the Indian sub-continent around 25,000 years ago. The routes taken are not clear, although the Indus and Ganges rivers are possible theories put forward. There could, of course, have been multiple immigrations of this haplogroup into the Indian sub-continent, both in the Paleolithic and the Neolithic


 


 

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) is the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, so of course the Albino people want to stake out that particular Haplogroup as the "WHITE" haplogroup. But there is just one problem, there are also lots of R1b people in Africa.

 



 

Here is what the Albino people say about haplogroups "R and R1b": For "R" quote - Possible place of origin Central Asia. For "R1B" quote: Possible place of origin West Asia, Russian Plain or Central Asia. Yes, you read that right, the Albinos admit that all humans originated in Africa, and from there, spread out to populate the rest of the world, but somehow, the "White Peoples" haplogroup started in Asia! For those who know that European Albinos claim to be indigenous to Europe, yet they now claim that their genes originated in Asia: please stifle the laughter until this part is finished.

Sometimes it's almost embarrassing watching Albinos twist themselves into pretzels in order to get the actual facts to fit their made-up scenarios. So how did they try to explain how all of those Black Africans could have their "WHITE" genes"? Well those completely devoid of sense and honesty tried to bring forward the concept of a "Back Migration to Africa". But when they saw that it wouldn't work, they just let it quietly fade away.

Of course there have been Back migrations to Africa in the current era (A.D.) The Central Asian Albino tribes called: the Alans, the Vandals, and the Visigoth's, rampaged through Europe, and entered North Africa through Spain in the early part of the current era. They gave rise to the Mulatto people of North Africa calling themselves "The Amazigh". Later, around 600 A.D. a Central Asian Albino super-tribe called the Turks, entered West Asia as the Slave Soldiers (Mamluks) of the Black Arabs. Later they took over West Asia as the Ottoman Empire. Their Mulattoes are now the predominate people of all of West Asia.

 
 
Note that in the News-Story, the pathetic, lying, so-called scientist, "Stamatoyannopoulos" NEVER says what the Minoan's genetic haplotype actually is!

Well here it is!

 



 
 
So now we know, the Minoan's Mtdna were: H, T, K, an I: with minor numbers of U5A, W, J2, U, X, and J people.
Their Y-dna was reported as R1a1 and R1b: It is highly unlikely that only these two haplogroups were present on the plateau - another Albino lie?

Not surprisingly, "The Ice-Man" shares genetic material with the Minoans (Mtdna "K").




 
 

Pistän tarkemmin kommentoimatta pari kuvaa haploryhmien jakautumasta ja liikkeistä:

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Data/Map_haplogroups.jpg

N-linjan liikkeille saadaan selvä takaraja, koska sitä ei esiinnyt Amerikan mantereella alkuperäisenä, vaikka N- ja sikäläisillä väestöillä on muita yhteisiä piirteitä.